Terrorism in Bali -- Lissa & Binita

  • History of Indonesia

    · 7th century Indians brought Hinduism and Buddhism to Indonesia

    · Muslims arrived in the late 13th century, and by the end of the 16th century it was the most dominant religion in the country

    · Europeans arrived in the 16th century looking for spices

    · Dutch dominated Indonesia until WWII when the Japanese occupation pushed the Dutch out

    · Declared independence 2 days after Japan surrendered in Aug 1945

    · Attempted coup in 1965: 500,000 killed

    · 1997 Asian financial crisis devalued Indonesian Rupiah 80% causing riots; AFC caused most damage to Indonesia

    · 1998 bloody violence and riots in response to leadership

    · Now a democracy – President is Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

  • Terrorism in Indonesia

    · 2000 – Jakarta stock exchange

    o Car bomb exploded in underground garage

    · 2000 – Christmas Eve bombings

    o Targeted churches throughout Jakarta & surrounding cities

    · 2002 – Bali bombings

    o October 12th, 2002 in Kuta

    o Used car bomb, suicide bomber and small bomb

    o Two nightclubs in Kuta & US embassy bombed

    o 202 people killed & 209 injured

    o Majority foreigners (especially Australians) killed

    o Members of Jemaah Islamiyah, violent Islamist group, convicted

    (Osama Bin Laden said it was direct retaliation for Indonesia’s support of US War on Terrorism and the East Timor conflict)

    · 2003 – Marriott hotel bombing

    o August 5th, 2003 in Jakarta

    o Suicide bomber and car bomb outside lobby

    o Marriott hotel

    o 12 people killed & 150 injured

    o 8 Indonesians killed, 1 Dutch, 1 Danish, 2 Chinese

    o Hotel was chosen because of its American brand name

    o Al Qaeda claimed responsibility of the attacks and bomber was member of JI – attack came 2 days before verdict in 2002 Bali bombing trials

    · 2004 – Australian embassy

    o September 9, 2004 in Jakarta

    o Suicide bomber & car bomb

    o 9 killed & 200 injured

    o JI claimed responsibility for attacks because Indonesia didn’t release their head

    · 2005 – Bali bombings

    o October 1st, 2005 in Jimbaran & Kuta

    o Coordinated suicide bombers (3) and car bombs

    o Food courts and warungs that foreigners frequent

    o 20 people killed & 129 injured

    o Majority foreigners (Australians)

    o Same day that gas prices rose 675% and 11 days before anniversary of 2002 bombings

    o Believed to be orchestrated by same group as 2002, JI

    · July 2009 – Jakarta hotel bombings @ JW Marriott & Ritz-Carlton

    o July 17th, 2009

    o Suicide bombers who checked into the hotels days earlier

    o Bombs went off 5 minutes apart from each other, first was at JW Marriott

    o 9 killed, including the bombers – 16 injured

    o Thought to be orchestrated by a former member of the JI, Noordin Mohammed Top, who set up his own splinter cell Tanzim Qaedat al-Jihad

    · Detachment 88 is the Indonesian government’s anti-terror group which is funded, trained and equipped by the US

    o Formed in 2003 after Bali attacks

    o 400 employees

    o Assisted by Australian and other Western forces

    o Can use US special forces to wiretap and read text messages of Indonesian civilians

  • Why Target Bali?

    · Indonesia is the world’s most populated Islamic nation, yet Bali is predominantly HINDU (so an attack there wouldn’t kill as many Muslims)

    · WESTERN tourist destination and can cause financial ripples throughout the economy – also does not have a significant military presence like the rest of Indonesia, making it an easy target

    · One of the wealthiest parts of Indonesia due to the heavy tourism industry, whereas most of Indonesia is dependent upon manufacturing and agriculture

    Results of Bali Attacks

    · Direct international tourist arrivals declined dramatically

    o Compounded by “unsafe” domestic airlines

    · Wide-spread loss of revenues to the tourism industry (hotels, restaurants, bars, retail & other vendors, taxis)

    · More domestic tourists as opposed to foreign, which resulted in lowering of rates

    o The domestic tourists also spent 50-75% less than the foreign tourists per day and stayed for an average of 7 days less

    · Negative impact on Bali’s image amongst Westerners

    · Indonesia placed on Western country’s watch lists

    · BHA formed to standardize procedures with Bali for hotels to cope with various situations such as tsunamis, terrorist attacks, etc.

  • Potential Threats

    · Places with high concentrations of Western visitors

    · Brand names associated with Western lifestyles (hotels, fast food, etc.)

    · Western symbols such as embassies and consulates

    · Places which do not conform to the moral standards of strict Muslims (i.e. bars)

    · Airports/Airplanes

  • Recovery period for tourism industry

    · Economy started bouncing back as quickly as 2003/2004

    · Just as Bali was recovering from the 2002 bombing, another bombing occurred in 2005 – causing concern amongst tourists

    · However, in 2008 the US took Bali off the terror watch list causing an influx in the number of American tourists

    · 2009 should have been a good year for the island, however due to the global financial crisis, many visitors have postponed their trips

    · The tourism industry of Bali is looking forward to 2010 and 2011

    · Has not fully recovered yet

  • What are hotels/restaurants/clubs/bars doing about it?

    · Increased security

    · Must maintain balance between luxury and security

    Metal detectors, pylons, CCTV, security cameras

    · No parking zones in front of hotels and restaurants

    · Contact and flow of information between government agencies and hotels (embassies, local and federal governments)

  • How to be safe on our trip

    · Be vigilant and identify risks before they become reality

    · Avoid major Western/tourist hotspots without security

Sources: www.wikipedia.org & Alexander Kespar (BHA)

(sorry about the formatting, tried to fix it -- this was the best)


Continuing with our earlier posting and responding to Sherri’s comment, Mr. Michael Burchett referred us to Mr. Alex Kespar from Bali Hotels Association who helps coordinate safety and security efforts amongst Bali’s hotels.

Mr. Burchett commented that “today’s travelers expect a high level of security, and for it to be visual, but not intrusive.” Therefore, hotels must maintain this delicate balance and focus on surpassing safety and security standards while respecting the personal space of the guests.

The following provides more insight into managing terrorism and threat countermeasures in Bali:

Most Recent Warnings of Terrorism Attacks

- According to BBC News on 31 December 2009, there is confusion between Bali governor and US Embassy over an alleged warning of an “indication of an attack” on 12/31/2009. Bali governor, Mangku Pastika, denies issuing a warning, both verbal and written. This confusion put authorities on “full alert.” Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8435900.stm

- The methods of attack are becoming increasingly high-tech and difficult to detect. For example, a baby-simulator has been used to smuggle explosives.

What are hotels/restaurants/clubs/bars doing about it?

- Maintaining constant communication with Bali Hotels Association, which corresponds with embassies and other entities, and then distribute regular updates and alerts to BHA members.

- Increasing security and threat countermeasure equipment: secured property entrances with pylons and boom gates, CCTV cameras and recording equipment, under-car detection equipment, bomb detection devices, shatter proof glass on the ground floor, restricted parking in front of entrances, metal detectors, personal screening devices and beach towers.

- Monitoring and improving safety and security standards and threat countermeasure equipment.

- Working with local communities to detect and report suspicious behavior.

- Emphasizing to the communities that professional searching and security must be incorporated into the local culture because of these terrorist events.

- Communicating and posting information via public websites, embassy alerts, and trip registration announcements.

o Bali’s Ministry of Culture and Tourism (BUDPAR) will launch an online security and safety website for tourists to access relevant and up-to-date information.


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