History of Bromo Mount

History of Mount Bromo
In mountainous regions in Tengger, we know of Mount Batok, sea sand, and the famous crater of Mount Bromo. Apparently they got the origin and history in the form of legends.

Before Rara Anteng married Joko Seger (See post before this), many men who fancies. Understandably, as the Goddess of beauty is very natural. Among the candidate, there is Kyai Bima, criminal magic. Rara Anteng can not simply reject the proposal. He accepted it with reservations, Kyai Bima make sea on the mountain and was completed overnight.

Kyai Bima undertakes these requirements and work hard to dig the ground to create a sea of using shell (shell) that mark until now a Mount Bathok, and sea sand (ocean wed hi) widely spread around the peak of Mount Bromo. To irrigate the sea of sand, built a giant well, the scar is now a crater of Mount Bromo.

Rara Anteng anxious to see the supernatural power and recklessness Kyai Bima. He soon find a way to thwart the interests of Kyai Bima on him. He also hits hard corn as dawn, when a still night. Hearing the sounds of pounding corn, chickens and crows wake. So did birds. Kyai Bima shocked. Mistaken for dawn. His job is not finished. Kyai Bima Climbing Hill then left. He left the signs:
1.Segara Wedhi, the sand beneath Mount Bromo
2.Mount Batok, ie, a hill located south of Mount Bromo, shaped like a shell that against.
3.Heap land spread in the area of Tengger, namely: Mountain-bull's shoulders, Mount Ringgit, Mount Linga. Mount Gendera, and others.

Readings seconds proclamation Manuscript

Negotiations between groups of young and old groups in preparing the text of the proclamation of Indonesian independence took place at 2:00 to 4:00 a.m. in the morning. Text of the proclamation was written in the dining room at the Admiral Tadashi Maeda Jln Imam Bonjol No. 1. The compilers of the text of the proclamation was Ir. Soekarno, Drs. Moh. Hatta, and Mr. Ahmad Soebarjo. The concept of the text of the proclamation was written by Ir. Soekarno himself. In the front room, was present Sayuti Melik BM Diah, Sukarni and Soediro. Sukarni proposed that the text signed a proclamation that is Ir. Soekarno and Drs. Moh. Hatta on behalf of the Indonesian nation. Proclamation of Indonesian text was typed by Sayuti Melik. In the morning, August 17, 1945, at the residence of Sukarno, the East 56th Street efflux have attended, among others Soewirjo, Wilopo, Gafar Pringgodigdo, Tabrani and Trimurti. The event began at 10:00 with the reading of the proclamation by Sukarno and spliced a short speech without text. Then the flag, which had been sewn by bu Fatmawati, flown, followed by a speech by Soewirjo, deputy mayor of Jakarta at the time and Moewardi Hospital, chairman of the Cordon Pioneer.

Trimurti initially asked to raise the flag but he refused on the grounds pengerekan flag should be performed by a soldier. Therefore, it instituted a Hendraningrat Latief, a soldier of PETA, assisted by Suhud for the task. A young woman emerged from behind a tray of Red and White (Sang Saka Merah Putih), which was sewn by Fatmawati few days earlier. After the flag waving, singing Indonesia Raya audience. [4]. Until now, the inheritance flag is still stored in the Museum Monument National Monument.

After the ceremony took place, approximately 100 members, led Barisan S. Brata Pioneers came in a hurry because they do not know where the sudden change from the Pegangsaan Ikada. They are demanding Sukarno repeated readings of the Proclamation, but refused. Finally Hatta gave brief message to them. [Five]

On August 18, 1945, Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) make a decision, approved and set the Basic Law (Constitution) as the basis of the Republic of Indonesia, hereinafter known as the Constitution 45. Thus, the State Government formed the shape of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia (Homeland), with sovereignty in the hands of the people who carried out entirely by the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) to be formed later.

After that Sukarno and M. Hatta was chosen upon the recommendation of Oto PPKI Iskandardinata and approval of the president and vice president of the Republic of Indonesia first. President and vice president will be assisted by a National Committee.

Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

Proclamation of Indonesian Independence Friday, August 17, 1945 Year of CE, or August 17, 2605 by year of Japanese is read by Ir. Sukarno, who was accompanied by Drs. Hatta East 56th Street Pegangsaan Central Jakarta.

On August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima by the United States which began to demoralize the spirit of the Japanese army in the world. A day later the Board of Inquiry Enterprises BPUPKI Preparation of Indonesian Independence, or "Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai", renamed PPKI (Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence), or also called Dokuritsu Junbi Inkai in Japanese, to further emphasize the desire and the goal of achieving the independence of Indonesia. On August 9, 1945, a second atomic bomb dropped over Nagasaki, causing the Japanese surrendered to the United States and its allies. This moment is also used by Indonesia to declare independence.
August 17th Indonesian flag raised 1945.jpg

Sukarno, Hatta, as lead manager and Radjiman PPKI Wedyodiningrat as the former chairman of BPUPKI flown to Dalat, 250 kilometers northeast of Saigon, Vietnam to meet Marshal Terauchi. They reported that Japanese troops are on the verge of defeat and will provide independence to Indonesia. Meanwhile in Indonesia, on August 14, 1945, Sutan Syahrir have heard the news over the radio that Japan had surrendered to the Allies. Underground fighters preparing to declare independence, and rejected the independence of Japan were given as gifts.

On August 12, 1945, Japan by Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam, told Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman that the Japanese government will soon give independence to Indonesia and the proclamation of independence can be carried out within a few days, depending on how the PPKI. [1] Nevertheless Japan wants the independence of Indonesia on August 24.

Two days later, when Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman return to homeland of Dalat, Sutan Syahrir urged Sukarno declared independence immediately due to consider results of meetings in Japan Dalat as a ruse, because every time Japan had to surrender to Allies and to avoid a split in nationalist stronghold, between the anti and pro-Japanese. Syahrir Hatta told about the results of the meeting in Dalat. Sukarno did not believe that Japan had surrendered, and the proclamation of independence when it may cause great bloodshed, and can have fatal consequences if Indonesian fighters were not ready. Soekarno Hatta reminded that Syahrir not entitled to declare independence because it is the right of Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI). Meanwhile Syahrir consider PPKI are bodies made in Japan and the proclamation of independence by PPKI only a 'gift' of Japan (sic).
Indonesian flag raising witnesses 17 August 1945.jpg

On August 14, 1945 Japan surrendered to the Allies. Army and Navy of Japan was still in power in Indonesia because Japan has promised to restore power in Indonesia in the hands of the Allies. Sutan Sjahrir, Wikana, Dervish, and Chaerul Saleh heard this news through the BBC radio. After hearing rumors of Japanese going to his knees, the young faction faction urged parents to immediately proclaimed Indonesia's independence. But the older group did not want to rush. They do not want bloodshed at the time of the proclamation. Consultation meetings were conducted in the form PPKI. Young Group does not approve the meeting, considering PPKI is a body established by the Japanese. They want freedom for our nation's own efforts, not giving the Japanese.

Sukarno and Hatta went to the military rulers of Japan (Gunsei) to obtain confirmation at his office in Koningsplein (Merdeka Square). But those empty office.

Sukarno and Hatta together and then to the office Soebardjo Bukanfu, Rear Admiral Maeda, at Jalan Medan Merdeka Utara (Maeda House on Jl Imam Bonjol 1). Maeda welcome them with congratulations on their success in Dalat. As he answered he had not received a confirmation and are still awaiting instructions from Tokyo. After the Maeda, Sukarno and Hatta immediately prepare a meeting of the Preparatory Committee of Indonesian Independence (PPKI) on August 16 at 10 am the next day at the office Pejambon Road No. 2 to discuss all things related to the preparation of the Proclamation of Independence.

A day later, the turbulent pressure that requires the takeover of power by Indonesian youths waged rapidly escalated from a few classes. PPKI Meeting on August 16 at 10 am was not implemented because the Sukarno and Hatta did not appear. Meeting participants did not know had happened Rengasdengklok events.

Buddhist History of Hinduism in Indonesia

Religion is the first entry in Indonesia was Hindu and Buddhist. Buddhist History of Hinduism in Indonesia is very interesting to learn. many cultures of this era that are still there and still we often see.

Indonesia also reached the top of the triumph of these periods, ranging from the kingdom of Sriwijaya, Majapahit kingdom, and others. so if we study the Hindu-Buddhist culture might not quite a year. culture and very interesting, very impressive, and very cultured.

Belief System
In the Buddhist religion, especially in the Mahayana system by system wagniadatu mention the supreme god is Adibudha and can not be described because it is not shaped.

Sidhartha Gautama
Founder of Buddhism was Gautama Sidhartha is a child king who had psychic or enliptenmen lighting. He Say that the world we see is maya and people are not knowledgeable. Sansana human life experience or life again as a human or animal.

Ganesha is the son of Shiva with Arwati. With the illustrated four-armed elephant-headed and, on the forehead also have a third eye. And on each arm have different bodies, namely:
a) the lower right hand holding the ivory fracture
w) the upper right hand holding prayer beads
c) upper left hand holds the ax
D) the lower left hand holds a bowl containing candied

Lord Shiva
In the middle of the page there are five buffaloes, four buffaloes were small, and one big buffaloes, which is the vehicle of Lord Shiva who kesemuaannya made of the statue.

The discovery of the ancient mosque of Islam Changed History

KHARTOUM (Sound of Media New) - A recent discovery about the mosque in the north of Sudan may be evidence of the establishment of the first mosque in Africa and the rapidly changing views about the history of Islam in the world.

"Several months ago a teacher from the school in Khartoum visit to attend a wedding Nawa. There, he heard the news about an ancient mosque, then decided to take pictures and write articles about the mosque was in the newspaper ', Dr. Hasan Al-Shaiqi, a professor of Islam at the International University of Africa in Khartoum, said on IOL.
"I contacted and went to the Nawa order to conduct investigations." When he had been in place, Al-Shiqi, who wrote extensively about the Companions of the Prophet SAW and tabis Africa (followers of the Companions), witnessed the ruins of a stone with Arabic inscriptions engraved at one side: "May Allah forgive Yazid ibn Abi Habib ".

Yazid ibn Abi Habib's story, a Nubian tabis and an expert who lived in Egypt at the two-Hijri, has been the subject of Al-Shiqi study for more than ten years.

"I'm looking for materials about the Companions of Africa when I learned about Yazid, a Nubian tabis from Northern Sudan. He is the subject of my thesis which was later published in book form."

He explains, ibn Abi Habib, the son of a Nubian prisoner of war who were brought from Dongola to Egypt.

Ibn Abi Al-Habib grew up in Fostat (old Cairo) as mawla (slave), but he was freed because of his prowess in studying the Islamic sciences, especially the Hadith (the sayings and behavior of the Prophet SAW.

"Most of his life was spent under the rule of Caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, where he was appointed mufti of Egypt", he continued.

Caliph 'Umar ordered to collect and record the hadith.

'Yazid was instrumental in the gathering of about 500 Hadith ".

Al-Shaiqi also explains the fact of some students ibn Abi Habib, including Al-Layth ibn Sa'd, who was also known as an expert from Egypt.

An expert from the Central Asian Hadith, Bukhari and Muslim, he is also a disciple of the famous.

In place of the mosque, Al-Shaiqi find some similarities with another mosque nearby.

"Judging from the shape and construction, much like Masjid mosque of Abdullah ibn Abi Sarh in Dongola long time."

Ibn Sarh, was a prominent Islamic leader who tried to conquer Nubia (northern Sudan and the Central and Southern Egypt at this time) in the eighth century AD, where there was fierce fighting and finally ended with a peace agreement with the Nubian population.

The agreement, known as Baqt, uniting Egypt and Nubia during the six centuries, and allowed the construction of the mosque in the capital of Nubia, Dongolia, for the Musyafir.

While recent discoveries open the mosque to do with Yazid, but still needs more research and digging, "said Al-Shiqi.

Dr. Hassan Husein of Corporate National Museum Artifacts and approve it.

"Further research on the mosque was to be done immediately," he told IOL.

Hussein complained of Islamic monuments in the Sudan do not receive the attention and care, but he hoped the discovery could change it.

"I hope that this discovery may result in more searches and support."

Al-Shiqi hope the discovery could change the view of some communities to the history of Islam in Nubia.

"The mosque may be able to prove that Yazid and other Egyptian Nubian society back to the ancestral land to spread Islam to their families."

A history expert evidence, Hassan Maki think the discovery may revolutionize public opinion on how the Nubian Islamic meyebar.

While most historians argue that Islam entered into Nubia in the 14th century AD marked the collapse of the empire Dongolia, the invention is expected to provide additional information.

"This could mean that the roots of Islam in the area are very old, around the first or second century Hijri (seventh or eighth century AD)

Ancient Age

Epidemic around 3000 BC 500 BC immigrants until now Mongol (mainland China) began living in the archipelago.

Around 200 BC the kingdom of Kalinga epidemic of India losing the war opponents kingdom of Ashoka, a descendant of the migration-ming Child Archipelago so Added nang kingdoms of the earth kingdom Salaknegara between Nusantara, the kingdom of Maharaja Kudungga sing lead, Kutai kingdom, the kingdom of Kalinga lyy.

Indian Prince Aji Saka is one immigrant that one know with language Sanskrit alphabet Palawa, that epidemic around 78 AD Sanskrit writing system Dewanagari uga know base, so that make embryo base.

make population of the archipelago is the assimilation of immigrants until now two regions (China with India).

History of Nusantara in the era of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms

Indonesia started to grow in the days of Hindu-Buddhist kingdom thanks to trade relations with neighboring countries or further afield such as India, China, and Middle East region. Hindu religion into Indonesia is estimated at the beginning of AD era, brought by travelers from India, among others: Maha Rishi Agastya, which in Java known as Guru or Dwipayana and travelers from China namely Pahyien Buddhist pilgrims.

In the 4th century empire in West Java have the character of the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms Tarumanagara is continuing with the Kingdom of Sunda until the 16th century.

In this period also appeared the two great kingdoms, namely the Sriwijaya and Majapahit. During the 7th century until the 14th century, the Buddhist kingdom of Sriwijaya in Sumatra growing rapidly. China I-Tsing explorers visited around the year 670 the capital of Palembang. At the peak of its glory, the Srivijaya controlled as far as Central Java and Cambodia. 14th century also witnessed the rise of a Hindu kingdom in East Java, the Majapahit. Majapahit Patih between the years 1331 to 1364, of Gajah Mada, managed to obtain power over the territory which now is mostly Indonesian and virtually all of peninsular Malays. Gajah Mada legacy from the period including the codification of law and the establishment of Javanese culture, as seen in the epic Ramayana.

The inclusion of Islamic teachings in about the 12th century, gave birth to the Islamic character of the kingdoms of our strong and expansionist, like Ocean Pasai in Demak in Java and Sumatra. The emergence of these kingdoms, gradually end the triumph of Sriwijaya and Majapahit, also marked the end of this era.


In the year 30 Hijri or 651 AD, only about 20 years ago of the Prophet's death, the Caliph Uthman ibn Affan RA to send a delegation to China to introduce Islamic Daulah recently stood. In a journey which took four years, the delegates turned out to Uthman had stopped at the islands of the archipelago. Some year later, exactly the year 674 AD, the Umayyad dynasty established a trading base on the west coast of Sumatra. This is the first introduction to Islam in the Indonesian population. Since then, Muslim sailors and traders continued to arrive, century after century. They buy the produce of the land of green nan this while preaching.

Gradually the natives began converting to Islam although not on a large scale. Of Aceh, the westernmost region of the Islands archipelago, is the first to accept Islam. Even in Acehlah first Islamic kingdom in Indonesia was established, namely Pasai. News from Marcopolo mention that at the time of year sojourn in Pasai 692 H / 1292 AD, has many Arabs who spread Islam. So did news of Ibn Battuthah, Muslim traveler from Maghribi., Who, when stopped in Aceh in the year 746 H / 1345 AD writes that the Shafi'i school of Aceh have been scattered. The oldest relic of Muslims in Indonesia are found in Gresik, East Java. Form of Islamic tomb complex, in which one of them is the tomb of a Muslim woman named Fatima bint Maimun. Numbers written on his tomb in 475 H / 1082 AD, ie at the time of the Kingdom Singasari. It is estimated that these tombs are not from the natives, but the graves of Arab traders.

Until the 8th century H / 14 F, there is no indigenous population Muslim massive archipelago. New in the 9th century H / 14 AD, the indigenous population to embrace Islam en masse. History experts argue that Islam entered the archipelago population on a large scale at that time was caused by centuries Muslims have a significant political force. Which is marked by the establishment of several Islamic kingdoms such as the Kingdom of patterned Aceh Darussalam, Malacca, Demak, Cirebon, and Ternate. The rulers of these kingdoms of mixed blood, descendants of the kings of pre-Islamic and indigenous migrants Arab. The rapid Islamization of the 14th century and 15 M, among others, also caused by the reflux of strength and influence of the kingdoms of the Hindu / Buddhist in the archipelago, such as Majapahit, Sriwijaya and Sundanese. Thomas Arnold in The Preaching of Islam says that the coming of Islam is not as conquerors as well as the Portuguese and Spanish. Islam came to Southeast Asia by way of peace, not with a sword, not by seizing political power. Islam entered the archipelago in a way that really show it as rahmatan lil'alamin. ArabicLanguage

With the native population into Islam Nusantara and the establishment of Islamic governments in various regions of this archipelago, the trade with Muslims from the center of the Islamic world became increasingly tighter. Arabs who migrated to the archipelago is also growing. The largest of them are derived from Hadramaut, Yemen. In Tarikh Hadramaut, migration is even said to be the largest in the history of Hadramaut. However, after the Christian European nations and with arriving gourmand-controlled areas in the archipelago for the region, relations with the center of the Islamic world as if disconnected. Especially in the 17th and 18th century AD. The reason, apart from being preoccupied with Muslims Nusantara resistance against colonialism, as well as various regulations created by the colonialists. Every time the invaders - notably the Netherlands - subdue the Islamic kingdom in the archipelago, they would have held out the royal ban treaty whose contents are related to trade with the outside world except through them. Then disconnect the archipelago with Muslims Muslims from other nations that has existed hundreds of years. Colonialist desire to alienate Muslims archipelago with its roots, is also visible from the assimilation policies that make them among the native Arabs.

Since the beginning of the arrival of Europeans in the late 15th century AD to the fertile islands of this prosperous, it has been shown to control their gluttony. Moreover, they found the fact that the population of these islands have embraced Islam, the religion of their enemies, so that the spirit of the Crusades was always take with them whenever they subjected a region. In combat they cooperated with the Islamic empires that still embraces indigenous Hindu / Buddhist. One example, to decide cruise lines Muslims, then after acquiring Malacca in 1511, the Portuguese cooperation with the Kingdom of Sunda Pajajaran to build a base at Sunda Kelapa. But the purpose of this Portuguese failed miserably after the combined armies of Islam from the north coast of Java island after them shoulder to shoulder in the year 1527 AD The great battle of this historic son Aceh led by a bloody Arabic Gujarati, namely Al-Pasai Fadhilah Khan, better known by his title, Fathahillah. Before becoming an important man in the three Muslim kingdoms of Java, namely Demak, Cirebon and Banten, Fathahillah had studied in Mecca. Even contributed to defend Mecca from the advancing Ottoman Turks.

The arrival of colonialists on the one side has raised the spirit of jihad of the Muslims archipelago, but on the other side make the deepening of belief in Islam is not uniform. Only among boarding schools (madrassas) are studied Islam, rose usually limited to the Shafi'i school. Whereas in most of the Muslims, mixing faith with pre-Islamic traditions. Priyayi circles near the Dutch even has plagued the European lifestyle. Conditions like this still happen at least until now. Apart from this, scholars Nusantara is the people who persevere against colonialism. Although many of them come from the congregation, but this is precisely among the congregation which often rise against invaders. And although the opposition was successfully suppressed by devious tactics, but history has recorded millions of martyrs who died in the archipelago various battles against the Dutch. Since the resistance of Islamic empires in the 16th and 17th centuries such as the Malacca (Malaysia), Sulu (Philippines), Pasai, Banten, Sunda Kelapa, Makassar, Ternate, until the resistance of the scholars in the 18th century such as the War of Cirebon (Good rangin), the Java War (Diponegoro), Padri War (Imam Bonjol), and the War in Aceh (Teuku Umar).

Pura in Bali

Unlike temples in Java, temple, or temple in Bali called, is part of community life that the majority of Balinese are Hindu. Pura in Bali is a Hindu shrine. Every Hindu family has a family temple for the worship of ancestors Hyang Widhi and family, so the temples on the island of Bali in number in the thousands.

Goda Pura village. Each village generally has three main temples called Pura Pura Three or Tri Goda Goda (tri = three), ie pretending shrines Sang Hyang Widi Wasa in three manifestations of His power: Pura Desa for the worship of Brahma (the Creator), Puseh temple for the worship of Vishnu (The Preserver), and Pura Dalem to worship Lord Shiva (The Destruction). Pura Bale Agung Village is also called, because the temples are usually located in the center of the village was also used as a place to conduct a village meeting.

Goda Pura Jagat. Pura Goda is a public place of worship Ida Sang Hyang Widi Wasa in his various manifestations and also where the spirits of the ancestral worship. Included in kaetgori Goda Jagat Pura, among them, is the Pura Sad Goda (sad = six), the temples are located in six major locations in the P. Goda Bali. Sad Pura Khayangan comprising: Luhur Pura Uluwatu, Pura Zingiber zerumbet, Pura Goa Lawah, Watukaru Pura, Pura and Pura Besakih Canning Hill. Sad Pura Kahyangan joints is believed to be the spiritual center of Bali Island and is a religious activity.

In addition Sad Pura Goda, who fall into that category is the Pura Pura Jagat Dhang Goda Goda, namely the temple which was built by the spiritual leaders in the past. Most Pura Dhang Goda has strong links to Dhang Nirartha Hyang, a pedanda (Hindu priest) of the Majapahit Kingdom. In the reign of Dalem Waturenggong, around the year 1411 Saka (1489 AD), Dhang Hyang Nirartha which is also known as Dhang Hyang Dwijendra, entered Yatra (pilgrimage) around Bali, Nusa Penida and Lombok. In several places to be visited Dhang Hyang Nirartha built several temples, such as Pura Uluwatu, Pura Siwi hair, etc.

Pura Luhur. Almost every district in Bali has the Pura Luhur (sublime = high), ie pretending that his birthday is celebrated by people in a way that involves piodalan hold thousands of people. Pura Tanah Lot, Goa Lawah, and Pura Uluwatu temple is also included in the category of the sublime.
Pura Kawitan. This temple is a place of worship for the descendants of a family group or a specific character. Included in this category are: Sanggah-Pemerajan, Pratiwi, Paibon, Panti, Dadia or Dalem Dadia, Upgrading Dadia, and Pedharman. Surely history kawitan temple can not be separated from the history of the kingdoms in Bali.

Based on the inscriptions have been discovered, it can be said that history begins in Bali which was recorded the 8th century AD. Among the kings of Bali, which left many written statement that also mention the picture of the composition of government at the time were Udayana, Jayapangus, Jayasakti, and Children Wungsu. In Blanjong Inscription (913 AD) made during the reign of Sri Kesari Warmadewa used the word 'Walidwipa' which refers to an area of government in Bali.

In 1343, the kingdom of Majapahit to Bali on an expedition, led by Commander mahapati Gajah Mada and Arya Damar. At that time ruled by the kingdom of Bali, with its king Astasura Bedahulu Ratna Bumi Banten and patih Kebo Iwa. Bali successfully conquered by the Majapahit and since then Bali is part of the Majapahit Kingdom. As head of government in P. Bali Majapahit King Sri Krishna lifted Kepakisan (1350-1380 AD) located in the village near the town of Gianyar Samprangan. Government Center and then transferred to the palace in Gelgel Suwecapura, Klungkung.

During the heyday of Majapahit, Kingdom Gelgel kings ruled by the descendants of Sri Krishna Kepakisan. When experiencing the collapse of the Majapahit Kingdom Gelgel which is no longer a country still ruled by descendants of colonial Sri Krishna Kepakisan. One King Gelgel, Dalem Waturenggong (1460-1550 AD), is very famous for during his reign P. Experiencing the golden age of Bali. Dalem Waturenggong Gelgel expand the Kingdom's territory into parts of East Java, Lombok and Sumbawa.

Gelgel golden era began to fade in the reign of Dalem Bekung (1550 - 1580 AD), the eldest son of Dalem Waturenggong. During the reign of Dalem At Made (1605-1651 AD), Gelgel even lost territory and Bima Blambangan (year 1633 CE) and Lombok (1640 AD). In the year 1651, an uprising led by Gusti Agung Maruti. During the reign held by Gusti Agung Maruti, the dependencies Gelgel, such as Badung, Bangli, Buleleng, Gianyar, Jembrana, Karangsem, Mengwi and Tabanan Gelgel escape from power and form a government alone.

In 1686 the son of Dalem In Made named Dewa Agung Jambe retake power from the hands of the rebels and the central government moved to the palace in Klungkung Samarapura, but the former subordinate kingdoms Gelgel retain its independence. Klungkung king, Dewa Agung, is positioned as a spiritual leader with a degree susuhunan Bali and Lombok.

Jembrana in the year 1808 were conquered by the King of Buleleng. In 1818, Jembrana successfully recaptured by the former King of Jembrana, but in 1821 the kingdom was again conquered by the King of Buleleng. Until the late 18th century, Bali was split into eight kingdoms, namely: Badung, Bangli, Buleleng, Gianyar, Karangsem, Klungkung, and Tabanan Mengwi. These small kingdoms which underlies the distribution of areas of government as the districts in Bali now.

Pura Swagina. This temple is a place of worship for community groups with a particular profession or livelihood. For example, Pura is pretending to throw the vendors, Pura Subak for farmer groups, etc..

Temples in East Java

In the early 10th century AD, exactly 929 years AD, the central government in Java moved to East Java. Mpu Sindok, descendants of the Mataram Hindu kings, founded a kingdom in East Java with the central government in Watugaluh, estimated location is in Jombang area. Mpu Sindok replaced by her daughter, Sri Isyana Tunggawijaya, so the kings hereinafter referred to as Isyana Dynasty. Queen's grandson Isyana Tunggawijaya, Mahendratta, married to King Bali, Udayana, and has a son Airlangga. Airlangga descendant kings ordered the construction of this most temples in East Java, although there are also temples that have been built in earlier periods, such as the Temple Badhut in Malang.

In Dinoyo Inscription (760 AD) mentioned about the existence of which is located in the Kingdom Kanjuruhan Dinoyo, Malang, who is believed to have strong links with the construction of a Hindu temple called the Temple Badhut. Unless Temple and the Temple Songgoriti Badhut in Batu, Malang, making large-scale stone building in the newly emerging again in the reign of Airlangga, for example the construction of bathing in the Hemisphere and the Temple Mount Jalatunda Guarantee.

Temples in East Java has different characteristics to those in Central Java and Yogyakarta. In East Java was not found to be large or wide temples, such as Borobudur, Prambanan or Sewu in Central Java. The only temple that occupies a rather complex area of the ruins were in Blitar. However, other temples in East Java are generally more artistic. Place mat or foot-shaped generally higher and storied hall. To get to the main building of the temple, people must cross the storied corridors connected by stairs.

Body building temples in East Java are generally slender with a smaller rise to the top roof and top of cube-shaped roof. Use of makara in the side entrance was replaced with a statue or a carved dragon. The contrast is also seen in relief. Relief at the temples of East Java which are carved with shallow carving technique (thin) and symbolic style. Objects and characters depicted elevation depicted generally taken from traditional performance stories.

Hindu temples in East Java are generally decorated with reliefs or statues relating to the Trinity, three gods in Hinduism, or associated with Shiva, for example: Durga, Ganesh, and Agastya. Shape and decoration associated with the Hindu teachings are often presented along with figures and decoration associated with Buddhism, particularly Buddhist Tantrayana. Another unique feature of the temples in East Java is the traditional performance stories featuring reliefs.

Development time frame temples in East Java is longer than that took place in Central Java, which only ranged between 200-300 years old. wake up temples in eastern Java is still ongoing until the 15th century. The temples are built during the Majapahit Kingdom generally use basic ingredients of red brick decorated with more sketchy.Certain temple that was built at the end of the reign of the Majapahit Kingdom assessed by anthropologists reflect the "rebellion" that arise due to public distrust and dissatisfaction against the state in his time of chaos and also as a result of concerns for the emergence of a new culture. Movement characteristics are: 1) There is a mystical ceremonies, magical generally implemented in secret; 2) Showing savior figure; 3) The figures are believed to be the defender of justice; 4) The emergence of communities that isolate themselves, generally to the area- mountain areas; and 5) re Showing culture 'old' as a form of longing for a past golden age. These characteristics are found, among other things, the Temple and the Temple fellowship Cetha.

In the 13th century Majapahit Empire began to recede fallen along with the advent of Islam on Java. In those days many sacred buildings related to Hinduism and Buddhism eventually abandoned and forgotten by most of the people who embraced Islam had changed. As a result, the temple was started for all team abandoned the ground and overgrown with bushes. When later in the surrounding area developed into a residential area, the situation becomes even worse. The walls of the temple was dismantled and taken away the stone for the foundation of the house or street speakers, while the crushed red brick to be used as a red cement. A number of ornate stone carvings and statues taken by Cinder Cinder-estate to display in the courtyard factories or housing accommodation owned plantations.

Information on temples in East Java are generally sourced from the land of the Book written by mpu Prapanca (1365) and written by mpu Pararaton Sedah (1481), as well as from various inscriptions and writings in the temple in question. In the Indonesian archaeological discourse, there is two shades shades enshrinement namely Central Java (50-10 centuries AD) and mannerism, East Java (11-15 century AD), where each has a different style and characteristics. Central Java patterned temples generally have body fat, vertical dimension with the geometric center of the temple located in the middle, while the East Javanese style slender, horizontal terraces with the most sacred part lies behind.

Different premises of Central Java's temples, other than as a monument to the temple in East Java also allegedly served as a pendarmaan and pengabadian king who had died. Pendarmaan temple is a place where, among other things, to the King Wisnuwardhana Candi Jago, Candi Candi Jawi and Singasari for King Kertanegara, Temple Hayamwuruk Ngetos for King, Candi Kidal for King Anusapati, Temple Bajangratu for King Jayanegara, Temple Jalatunda to King Udayana, Baths Hemisphere for King Airlangga, Temple Rimbi to Queen Tribhuanatunggadewi, Temple Surawana for Bre Wengker, and temples Tegawangi for Bre Matahun or Rajasanegara. In the Java philosophy of the temple also functions as a place Ruwatan king who had died so sacred and can return back to being a god incarnate. This confidence is closely related to the concept of "god king" growing strong in Java, while at the same time. Ruwatan function characterized by the existence at the foot of the temple reliefs depicting legends and stories containing moral messages, such as those found at Candi Jago, Surawana, Tigawangi, and Jawi.

Temples in East Java, the number reached tens, general construction has strong links with Singasari Kingdom and Majapahit Kingdom. Not all temples contained in this web site. Still many temples, particularly the small temples that have not been covered, including: bacem, Bara, Baby, Besuki, strips, Dadi, Domasan, Pictures, Images Wetan, Gayatri, Gentong (in restoration), Indrakila, Jabung, Jimbe, Kalicilik , Kedaton Kotes, Wardrobe, Village Chief, Menakjingga, Mleri, Ngetos, Pamotan, Panggih, Pari, Patirtan Jalatunda, Sanggrahan, Selamangleng, Selareja, Sinta, Songgoriti, Sumberawan, Sumberjati, Sumberjati, Sumbernanas, Well, Lawang Watu, and Watugede.

Temples in Central Java and Yogyakarta

In the 7th century until the early 8th century, Central Java, there is a Hindu kingdom called Kalinga. At the end of the first half of the 8th century, it is estimated th. 732 M, King Sanjaya change the name of Kalinga to Mataram. Later Mataram was ruled by the descendants of Sanjaya (Wangsa Sanjaya). During the reign of King Sanjaya, is estimated to have been built Shiva temples in Dieng mountains.
At the end of the reign of King Sanjaya, who came from King Syailendra Sriwijaya (in Palembang), which overran the southern region in Central Java. Hindu Mataram power pushed to the north of Central Java.

Government Syailendra Buddhist king was followed by his offspring, Wangsa Syailendra. Thus, for more than a century, the years 750-850 AD, Central Java, is controlled by the two governments, ie governments Hindu Sanjaya Dynasty and Dynasty Syailendra that embraces the Buddhist Mahayana religion. In this period most temples in Central Java built. Therefore, the temples in the northern part of Central Java in general is of Hindu temples, while in the south are Buddhist temples. Second Dynasty which ruled in Central Java is finally united through marriage Rakai Pikatan (838-851 AD) with Pramodawardhani, Son of the House of Sovereigns Samarattungga Syailendra.

Temples in Central Java are generally facing the East, was built using rock andesite. The temple building and fat-bodied generally located in the center of the court. Between the legs and body of the temple there is a fairly wide hallway, which serves as a place to do a 'pradaksina'. On the threshold of the room and there are niches headdress Kala (Kalamakara) without the lower jaw. Forms the roof of the temple in central Java are generally broad with a peak or a stupa-shaped gem. Repeatability of the roof appears clearly.

In addition to the location and form of buildings, temples central Java has a special characteristic in terms of relief, namely Inscription in, the objects depicted in relief with figures Front naturalist forward. Boundary between one scene with another scene does not look real and there are fields left blank. Kalpataru tree is considered a sacred tree that grew out of a round-shaped object found in many temples of central Java.

Temples in Central Java and Yogyakarta, the number reached tens, general construction has strong links with the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram, both under government and Wangsa Wangsa Sanjaya Syailendra. Not all temples contained in this web site. Still many temples, particularly the small temples that have not been covered, including: Abang, Asu, Bogem, Bugisan, Candireja, Dawungsari, Dengok, Gampingan, Gatak, Gondang, Cave Sentana, Gunungsari, Gunungwukir (Canggal), Ijo, Kelurak, Marundan, Peacock, Miri, Morangan, emergence, Ngawen, Payak, Pendem, Pringapus, Retno, Sakaliman, Sojiwan, Umbul and Watugudig.

Temple in West Java

History of a temple in Indonesia is inseparable from the history of an empire, because the construction of a temple in the past was on the orders of a king or head of government that controls the area where the temple is located. Centuries, since the Dutch colonial period, almost no buildings of ancient relics found in West Java. Relics of the past who made a foothold in an attempt to explain in coherent history of the kingdoms in West Java, particularly Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms, during this form of inscriptions found in several places and ancient books, such as Jawadwipa Library, Library Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara and Chu-fan-chi written by Chau Ju-kua (1178-1225) which is a record (book) is a description on the China Sunda.

One of these is the inscription prasati Interpreter Estuary Sand Pangambat or inscription (Saka 458 or 536 AD) found in the Sand Muara, Bogor explained about the refund of state government to the King of Sunda. Another inscription is a relic Elephant King Inscription Purnawarman palms which are also found in the Sand Estuary, which includes palm images of elephants and a description that describes a pair of foot trail is the property belongs to the ruler Tarumanagara elephant.

Ciaruteun inscriptions found in S. Ciaruteun, about 100 m from the estuary S. Cirateun to S. Cisadane and is a few hundred yards from where the discovery of inscriptions Pangambat Savior. Inscription Ciaruteun load images trace a pair of legs and written in Sanskrit language Palawa letter explaining that it belonged to trace your feet that controls the King Purnawarman Tarumanagara. According to information contained in the Library Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, King Purnawarman Tarumanegara ruled in 395-434 AD Coffee Kebon Inscription (942 AD) found in the former coffee plantation owned by Jonathan Rig in Ciampea, also not far from the discovery of inscriptions Pangambat Interpreter. An inscription was also found at the top of the Mount Koleangkak, Gintung Sand Village, Sub Leuwiliang. This inscription also includes a pair of foot picture and caption that these feet belong to the reign of King Purnawarman Taruma. There are still many other inscriptions that can be used as a source of information on the history of the kingdoms in West Java, such as the inscription Citatih (Cibadak, 1030 M), Inscription Cidanghiang (Lebak), and the inscription of Guava (bear; west of Bogor).

Based on the information in the stele and the books that exist, it is known that the kingdom was founded Rajadirajaguru Taruma Jayasingawarman in the year 358 AD The king died in 382 and was succeeded by his son, Dharmayawarman (382-395 AD). King is the next Tarumanegara Purnawarman (395-434 AD), who built a new royal capital, Sundapura, in the year 397 AD Kingdom Tarumanagara only 12 people suffered during the reign of the king. King Tarumanagara last, Linggawarman, replaced by-law in the year 669 AD

Pangambat inscriptions that describe the return of the Savior to the King reign in 536 AD created the Sunda, namely on Suryawarman reign (535-561 AD), King Tarumanagara to-7. In Library Jawadwipa mentioned that in Candrawarman reign (515-535 AD), father Suryawarman, many local authorities who receive back the power of government over the area as a reward for his loyalty to the Tarumanagara, like the handover of power by Suryawarman back. The return of these powers is an indication that Sundapura, which was originally a Tarumanagara capital, has changed its status into an empire. Thus, the central government Tarumanagara undergoes a displacement to another place.

In the year 670 AD, was split into two kingdoms Tarumanagara bounded by S. Citarum, namely the Kingdom of Sunda and the Kingdom Galuh. The kings who reigned in the Kingdom of Sunda is a descendant of Maharaja Tarusbawa, daughter of King Linggawarman. Tarusbawa king, who ruled the kingdom of Sunda until the year 723 AD, founded a new royal capital in a rural area near the Upper Cipakancilan.

In the year 732 AD King Tarusbawa replaced the title of King of Sunda King Harisdarma II. Raja Sunda-law of King II, who also conquered the kingdom Galuh Tarusbawa later and better known by the name of King Sanjaya. As heirs Kalinga Kalinga he later became the ruler of the North, called the Hindu Mataram, in Central Java, in the year 732 AD Power in West Java handed to his son, Rakai Panaraban. Son of King Sanjaya others, Rakai Panangkaran inherit power in the Hindu kingdom of Mataram.

Only about thirty years found some historical sites such as ruins of ancient buildings in several places in West Java. These findings include: Temple in Kampung Bojongmenje Bojongmenje, Cangkuang Village, Rancaekek district, Bandung regency (found on August 18, 2002); Temple Temple or Temple Ronggeng Pamarican Pamarican in District, County Ciamis (discovered in 1977); temple complex Batujaya in District Cibuaya Batujaya and in Karawang regency, as well as at the Village Temple Cangkuang Cangkuang, Leles Garut District. Although so far could not be ascertained when and by whom these temples was built, but the discovery of ruins of ancient buildings are new facts that can be used to reveal the history of kingdoms in West Java.

Temples in Sumatra

The temple on the island of Sumatra, not as much as there is in Java. Most temples in Sumatra is located at a location far enough away from town, so not many tourists who visit there. Most of the temples of Sumatra, which has been known to exist, located in the province of North Sumatra, especially in the District Mandailing Natal and South Tapanuli. Very little information is known about the existence of such temples. In addition, the temple site is generally quite far from town, so not many people know of its existence or visit there.

In Simangambat near Siabu, North Sumatra, for example, there are ruins of Shiva temples. Presumably the temple was built in the 8th century. To learn more about the ruins of this temple is still necessary to study and excavation.
Other areas in North Sumatra are known to have a lot of temples is Padang Lawas area which includes the Sub Sipirok, Sibuhuan, Sosopan, Sosa and Alternating Padang. In this area there are dozens of ruins of Hindu temples all of which are located not far from the creek. Most are in District Alternating Padang. Not much is known about the ruins of the Temple. Presumably the temples are built in the reign of the kingdom Panei in 11th century AD

Among the temples in the region of Padang Lawas, the best known is the Temple which is located in the village Bahal Bahal. This temple has been known to exist since the Dutch era. The Dutch government called it Temple Portibi (portibi in Batak language word meaning in this world). Bahal Temple complex in the temple there are three buildings that have been renovated, namely Candi Bahal First, Bahal Bahal II and III. These three temples are located on one straight line. Although has undergone restoration, many parts of the temple which was not found again and should be replaced with brick. Other temples in this region, which have had restoration is Sipamutung Temple. This is the enshrinement of the temple complex is quite large and consists of several buildings, but almost no information that could have been written about this temple.

Muaro In Jambi, Jambi province, there are also several temples, among which are Astano Temple, Temple and Temple High Gumpung, new Twins Temple, Temple Gedong, Kedaton Temple, and Temple City Mahligai. Form of temple building and the remaining articles were found Muaro historic Jambi show that this building background of Hinduism and is expected to be built at the abat-4 up to the 5th M.

The temple was quite large and famous temple of Muara Takus Sumatra is located in Riau Province, precisely in the village of Muara Takus, District Thirteen Koto Kampar regency. Near the upper reaches, the river forked into Sungai Kampar Kampar Kanan and Kampar Kiri. On the edge location of Stream Kampar Right village of Muara Takus this. The temple building Takus Estuary is mainly made of red bricks. Unlike the other temple ruins found in North Sumatra, Muara Takus Temple is a Buddhist temple. The existence of the temple allegedly has strong links with the Kingdom of Sriwijaya and can also be used as an indication that the Estuary Takus never functioned as a port of the vessel. This is possibly because people Sriwijaya is a tough sailors who could navigate the Kampar River far upstream. Based on the record the I-Ching, who estimates that there Takus Estuary area is not the capital of Sriwijaya or at least as a port city that was once a center of Buddhist learning, a place of knowledge of travelers from China, India and other nations.


The word "temple" refers to various forms and functions of buildings, among others, four of worship, religious teaching centers, where the ashes to save the king, a place of worship or place of deity dwells, petirtaan (baths) and the gate. Although a variety of functions, general functions of the temple can not be separated from religious activities, especially Hinduism and Buddhism, in the past. Therefore, the development history of the temple is very closely related to the history of empires and the development of Hinduism and Buddhism in Indonesia, since the 5th century until the 14th century.

Because sjaran Hindus and Buddhists from countries India, the temple got a lot of Indian influence in various aspects, such as: construction techniques, styles of architecture, decoration, and so forth. Nevertheless, the influence of local culture and natural conditions were very strong, so the architecture of the temple, Indonesia has its own character, both in the use of materials, construction technique or pattern decor. The walls of the temple is usually given in the form of relief decoration that contains teachings or stories.

Manasara mentioned in the book that forms a basic knowledge of art temple gate buildings, namely building located at the entrance to or exit from a place, land, or territory. Arch itself can serve as a guide or as a border gate, located on the boundary wall of a particular building complex. Gopuram has important functions in a complex of buildings, so the arch is also nencerminkan majesty of the building restrictions. The second difference lies in the office building. The temple has a closed room while the room is a hallway in the arch that serves as the exit-entry.

A few religious books in India, for example Prakasa Manasara and SIPA, which includes gate making rule upheld by the artists of buildings in India. The artists at that time believed that the regulations contained in the religious scriptures are sacred and magical. They believe that creating a true and beautiful buildings have separate meanings for the creators and rulers who ordered the building. The buildings are built properly and beautiful will bring prosperity and happiness to society. Confidence makes the artists who will create a gateway to the preparation and planning, both religious and technical.

One of the most important part in the technical design of the sketch is correct, because with the right sketch of the building will be generated as expected of the artist. Making sketches of buildings should be based on rules and specific requirements, related to the shape, size, and its layout. If in the manufacture of building deviations from the provisions of religious books would result in great hardship for the manufacturer and the surrounding community. That means that the provisions in the religious books can not be changed by arbitrarily. However, a culture, including art building, can not be separated from the influence of natural conditions and local culture, and the influence of time. In addition, each artist has a different imagination and creativity.

Until now, there are many temples is found in various parts of Indonesia, especially in Sumatra, Java, and Bali. Although most of them in ruins, but not least the still intact and even still be used to perform religious ceremonies. As a result of human culture, the beauty and elegance of the temple gives an idea of the greatness of the kingdoms in the past.

Hindu temples in Indonesia are generally built by the king during his lifetime. Statue of god, like God Vishnu, Brahma, Goddess Tara, the goddess Durga, who are placed in temples made by many as the embodiment of their ancestors. Even sometimes the relevant history of the king mentioned in the inscription that the temple offerings. Unlike Hindu temples, Buddhist temples are generally constructed as a form of devotion to religion and to obtain a reward. Buddhism is reflected in the temples in Central Java is the Mahayana Buddhism, which was adopted by Buddhists in Indonesia until recently. Unlike adopted Hinayana Buddhism in Myanmar and Thailand.

In this web site, description of the temple in Indonesia are grouped into: the temple in Central Java and Yogyakarta, the temple in East Java, Bali's temples and temple in Sumatra. Although in the present Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces represent two distinct, but historically these areas can be said under the authority of the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram, a very big role in the construction of temples in these two provinces. Grouping the temples in Central Java and Yogyakarta based on the current administrative region is difficult, however, based on characteristics, these temples can be grouped in temples in the northern region and the temples in the southern region.

The temples are located in the northern regions, which are generally built by the House of Sanjaya, a Hindu temple in the form of building a simple, unadorned shelf, and built in groups but each stands alone and is situated irregularly irregular. Included in this group, including: Candi Candi Dieng and Gedongsanga. The temple in the southern region, which is generally built by the House of Syailendra, a Buddhist temple with a beautiful building form and loaded with ornaments. The temple in the northern region is generally built in groups with the same pattern, namely the main temple is located in the center surrounded by rows of chapel. Included in this group, among them: Prambanan Temple, Mendut, Temple Kalasan Sewu, and Borobudur.

The temples in East Java are generally younger than those found in Central Java and Yogyakarta, because construction is done under the rule of the successor kingdoms of the Hindu Mataram kingdom, like the Kingdom KAHURIPAN, Singasari, Kediri and Majapahit. Basic materials, building styles, style and story content reliefs in the temples of East Java is very diverse, depending on their future development. For example, the temples built during the kingdom Singasari generally made of andesite and colored by the teachings Tantrayana (Hindu-Buddhist), while those built during the Majapahit Kingdom is generally made from red brick and more colored by Buddhism.

The temples in Bali is a Hindu temple and is generally most still used for the implementation of the religious ceremony until today. On the island of Sumatra, there are two Buddhist temples that are still found, namely Portibi in North Sumatra province and Candi Muara Takus in Riau Province.

Most temples in Indonesia was found and restored at the beginning of the 20th century. On June 14, 1913, the Dutch colonial government established the so-called archeological body Oudheidkundige Dienst (commonly abbreviated as OD), so the handling of the temples in Indonesia became more intensive. This web site is planned to contain a description of all existing temples in Indonesia, but currently not all the temples be covered.

Age of the Dutch East Indies

In the days of the Dutch East Indies, Surabaya residency status as the capital of Surabaya, whose territory also includes the area that is now the region Gresik, Sidoarjo, Mojokerto and Jombang. In 1905, Singapore received the status of municipality (a town). In 1926, designated as a provincial capital Surabaya, East Java. Since it was developed into a modern city of Surabaya, the second largest in the Dutch East Indies after the Batavia.

Before the year 1900, the central city of Surabaya only revolves around Red Bridge only. Until the 1920s, new residential growth areas such as Darmo, Gubeng, Sawahan, and Ketabang. In the year 1917 built a modern port facility in Surabaya.

Dated February 3, 1942, the Japanese dropping bombs in Surabaya. In March 1942, the Japanese captured Singapore. Surabaya later became an Allied air attack on May 17, 1944.

History of Indonesian Names

In ancient times, the islands of our homeland is called by various names. In a note Tionghoa archipelago nation we named Nan-hai (the South Sea Islands). Various ancient records of India named the archipelago nation Dwipantara Islands (Land Opposite) name derived from the Sanskrit word Dwipa (island) and between (outside, opposite). Valmiki Ramayana story of a famous poet that tells the search for Sprott, Ravana kidnapped Rama's wife, came to Suwarnadwipa (Island of Gold, which is now Sumatra) located in Dwipantara Islands.

Arabs called our homeland Jaza'ir al-Jawi (Javanese Islands). Latin name for frankincense is benzoe, derived from the Arabic luban jawi (frankincense of Java), because Arab traders obtained from incense trees Styrax sumatrana who once grew only in Sumatra. To this day pilgrims we still often called "Java" by Arabs. Even though people outside Java, Indonesia. Samathrah, Sholibis, Sundah, kulluh Jawi (Sumatra, Sulawesi, Sundanese, Javanese everything), "said a trader in the Market Seng, Mecca.

Then came the time of arrival of the Europeans to Asia. European nations who first came to assume that Asia was only composed of Arabs, Persians, Indians and Chinese. For them, the area stretching between Persia and China, everything is "Indian". South Asian peninsula they called "Ocean Front" and mainland Southeast Asia was named "Rear Indies." While we get the name of homeland "Indian Archipelago" (Archipel Indies, the Indian Archipelago, l'Archipel Indien) or "East Indies" (Oost Indies, East Indies, Indes Orientales). Another name used is "Malayan Archipelago" (Maleische Archipel, Malay Archipelago, l'Archipel Malais).

When our country colonized by the Dutch, the official name used is the Nederlandsch-Indie (Dutch Indies), while the government used the term occupation of Japan from 1942 to 1945 To-Indo (East Indies). Eduard Douwes Dekker (1820-1887), known by the pseudonym of Multatuli, never proposed a specific name for the islands to mention our homeland, namely Insulinde, which means also "Indian Archipelago" (the Latin insula meaning island). But apparently my name is now popular Insulinde. For the people of Bandung, Insulinde probably just known as a bookstore that ever existed on the Road Otista.

Indonesian Names

Name of Indonesia In 1847 Singapore's scientific magazine published an annual, Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA), which is managed by James Richardson Logan (1819-1869), the Scots who took a law degree from the University of Edinburgh. Then in 1849 an expert in ethnology of the British nation, George Samuel Windsor Earl (1813-1865), incorporating itself as a magazine editor JIAEA. In 1850 JIAEA Volume IV, pages 66-74, Earl wrote an article "On The Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations. In his article was Earl asserts that it was time for the people of the Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago to have a unique name (a Distinctive name), because the Indian name is not appropriate and is often confused with the mention of another Indian. Earl filed two options name: Indunesia or Malayunesia (nesos in Greek means island). On page 71 the article was written:

.. The inhabitants of the Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago would Indunesians or changed from Malayunesians respectively.

Earl himself has said choosing a name Malayunesia Islands (Malays) than Indunesia (Ocean Islands), because Malayunesia perfect for races Malays, while Indunesia can also be used to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Maldives (Maldives). Besides, says Earl, is not Melayu language used throughout the archipelago? In his writing was Earl's use of the term and did not use the term Malayunesia Indunesia.

In Volume IV JIAEA also, pages 252-347, James Richardson Logan wrote the article The Ethnology of the Indian Archipelago. In early writings, Logan also stated the need to name specific to the islands of our homeland, because the term "Indian Archipelago" is too long and confusing. Logan picked up a discarded Indunesia Earl, and the letter u replaced with the letter o to his words better. Thus was born the term Indonesia. For first time the Indonesian word appeared in the world with 254 pages of printed text on Logan:

Mr. Earl suggests the term ethnographical Indunesian, but Rejects it in favour of Malayunesian. I prefer the purely geographical term Indonesia, Which is merely a synonym for the Shorter Indian Islands or the Indian Archipelago.

As proposed the name "Indonesia" Logan seems unaware that in the future name would become a national and state population in fourth biggest on earth!

Since then Logan has consistently used the name "Indonesia" in scientific writings and use of this term is slowly spreading among the scientists field of ethnology and geography. In 1884 a professor of ethnology at the University of Berlin, named Adolf Bastian (1826-1905) published a book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipel five volumes, containing the results of his research when it wandered into our homeland in 1864 until 1880. Bastian's book is a popularized the term "Indonesia" among the Dutch scholar, so that could arise assuming that the term "Indonesia" Bastian's creation. Opinion that is not true that, among others listed in Encyclopedie van Nederlandsch-Indie in 1918. Yet Bastian adopted the term "Indonesia" was from the writings of Logan.

Son of the motherland which first Use name "Indonesia" is Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara). When the exhaust to Holland in 1913 he established a bureau of the press with a Press-bureau Indonesische

the Kings of Majapahit

Here is a list of rulers of Majapahit. Notice that there is a gap between administration Rajasawardhana period (ruler of the 8th) and Girishawardhana possible succession crisis caused by the Majapahit royal family broke into two groups.

1. Raden Wijaya, styled Kertarajasa Jayawardhana (1293 - 1309)
2. Kalagamet, styled Sri Jayanagara (1309 - 1328)
3. Sri Gitarja, styled Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi (1328 - 1350)
4. Hayam Wuruk, styled Sri Rajasanagara (1350 - 1389)
5. Wikramawardhana (1389 - 1429)
6. Suhita (1429 - 1447)
7. Kertawijaya, styled UB I (1447 - 1451)
8. Rajasawardhana, styled UB II (1451 - 1453)
9. Purwawisesa or Girishawardhana, styled UB III (1456 - 1466)
10. Bhre Pandansalas, or Suraprabhawa, styled UB IV (1466 - 1468)
11. Bhre Kertabumi, styled UB V (1468 - 1478)
12. Girindrawardhana, styled UB VI (1478 - 1498)
13. Hudhara, styled UB VII (1498-1518


Majapahit was an ancient kingdom in Indonesia that had stood from 1293 until around the year 1500 AD This kingdom reached the peak of its power during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, who ruled from 1350 until 1389.

Majapahit kingdom was the last Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that controls the Malay Peninsula and is considered as one of the largest state in Indonesia's history. Its influence extended in Java, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaya, Borneo, the Sulu Archipelago, Manila (Saludung), to Eastern Indonesia , although still disputed territory.

Glory of Majapahit

Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit in 1350 until 1389. At the time Majapahit reached the peak of its power with the help mahapatihnya, Gajah Mada. Under the command of Gajah Mada University (1313-1364), Majapahit control more territory. In 1377, several years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit attack by sea to Palembang, causing the collapse of the remnants of Sriwijaya.

According Nagarakertagama stanza XIII-XV, the Majapahit kingdom covering Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, Papua, and some islands of the Philippines [13]. However, natural and economic constraints showed that the areas of power does not seem to be under centralized power of Majapahit, but connected to one another by a trade that might be monopolized by the king. Majapahit also has a relationship with Campa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even send His emissary ambassador to China.

The establishment of the Kingdom of Majapahit history

After Singhasari Sriwijaya away from Java overall on year 1290, Singhasari become the most powerful empire in the region. This to the attention of Kublai Khan, ruler of Dynasty Yuan in China. He send envoy named to the Chi Meng Demanding Singhasari tribute. Kertanagara, Singashari ruler the latter refused to pay tribute and embarrass envoy those with damage face and bypass ear. Kublai Khan was angry and then expedition dispatch great to Java in 1293. At that time, Jayakatwang, duke of Kediri, was killed Kertanagara. On the advice of Aria Wiraraja, Jayakatwang give clemency to Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara-law, who came to surrender. Raden Wijaya then given the woods Pull. He opened the forest and built a new village. The village was named Majapahit, whose name is taken from maja fruit, and taste "bitter" from these fruits. When the Mongols arrived, Wijaya allied with the Mongol army to fight Jayakatwang. Raden Wijaya Mongolnya ally turns against forcing them withdraw from a chaotic because they are in foreign territory. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds to be able to go home, or they would have had to wait another six months on a foreign island. The exact date of which is used as date of birth of the Majapahit empire, Raden Wijaya was the day of coronation as king, that on November 10, 1293. He was crowned with the official name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The kingdom was facing problems. Some people trusted Kertarajasa, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though the revolt did not succeed. Slamet Muljana mahapati Halayudha guess that was the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king, so he can reach the highest positions in government. However, after the death of the last rebel (Kuti), Halayudha arrested and jailed, and then sentenced to death. Wijaya died in 1309. Wijaya's son and heir, Jayanegara, is the master of evil and immoral. He dubbed Gemet Kala, meaning "weak villain". In 1328, Jayanegara killed by tabibnya, Tanca. Her stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni should replace him, but Rajapatni choose resigned from the palace and become a preacher woman. Rajapatni pointed Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi daughter to become queen of Majapahit. During the reign Tribhuwana, Majapahit kingdom grew into larger and more famous in the area. Majapahit Tribhuwana mastered until her death in 1350. He was succeeded by his son, Hayam Wuruk. Hayam Wuruk glory of Majapahit, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit in 1350 until 1389. At the time of Majapahit reached the peak of its power with the help mahapatihnya, of Gajah Mada. Under the command of Gajah Mada University (1313-1364), Majapahit control of more territory. In 1377, several years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit attack by sea to Palembang, causing the collapse of the remnants of Sriwijaya. According Nagarakertagama stanza XIII-XV, the Majapahit kingdom covering Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, Papua, and some islands of the Philippines. However, the limits of nature and the economy shows that regions that power does not seem to be under centralized power of Majapahit, connected to one another but by the trade that may be a monopoly by the king [14]. Majapahit also has a relationship with Campa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even send-dutanya ambassador to China. After the fall of Majapahit reached its peak in the 14th century, Majapahit kingdom was gradually weakening. There appears to be a civil war (War Paregreg) in 1405-1406, between Wirabhumi against Wikramawardhana. Similarly, there has been a fight about the turn of the king in the year 1450 - an, and the great rebellion waged by a nobleman in the year 1468 [7]. In Javanese tradition there is a chronogram or candrasengkala which reads ilang kretaning earth vanished. This is said year Sengkala end of Majapahit and should be read as 0041, the year of Saka 1400, or 1478 CE. Sengkala meaning is "gone gone prosperity earth." However, the truth is illustrated by the deaths of Bre candrasengkala Kertabumi, the 11th king of Majapahit, by Girindrawardhana. When Majapahit founded, Muslim traders and the spreaders of religion had begun entering the archipelago. In the late 14th century and early 15th century, the Majapahit influence throughout the archipelago began to decrease. At the same time, a new trading empire based on Islam, the Sultanate of Malacca, began to emerge in the western part of the archipelago. Note the history of China, Portuguese (Tome Pires), and Italy (Pigafetta) indicates that there has been displacement of the Majapahit kingdom in the hands of Hindu rulers into the hands of the Duke of Unus, the ruler of the Sultanate of Demak, between the years 1518 and 1521 AD


In the 1920s, Ernest Francois Eugene Douwes Dekker (1879-1950), which we know as Dr. Setiabudi (he is the grandson of the brother Multatuli), popularize a name for our homeland that does not contain elements of the word "Indian". Is no other name is Nusantara, a term that has been submerged for centuries. Setiabudi took the name from Pararaton, Majapahit era of ancient manuscripts found in Bali at the end of the 19th century and translated by JLA Brandes and published by Johannes Nicholaas Krom in 1920.

However, it should be noted that the definition proposed Nusantara Setiabudi much different with the understanding, the archipelago of Majapahit era. During the Majapahit Nusantara used to name the islands outside of Java (in Sanskrit means between the outer, opposite) as opposed to Jawadwipa (Java).

We certainly never heard Palapa Oath of Gajah Mada, Seagrass huwus lost archipelago, isun amukti palapa "(If you have lost the islands opposite, then I enjoy the break). By Dr.. Setiabudi archipelago word connotes ignorance Majapahit era (lowliness of civilization) that given a nationalistic sense. By taking the word of the original Malays, the archipelago now has a new meaning of "homeland between the two continents and two oceans", so Java was included in the definition of a modern country. Setiabudi term of this archipelago is fast becoming popular its use as an alternative to the name of the Dutch East Indies.

To this day we use the term domestic fixed for mention our homeland territory from Sabang to Merauke. But the official name of our state and nation is Indonesia. Now we will explore where the hell the name was difficult for the tongue appears Melayu


There is little physical evidence remains of Majapahit, and its history is not clear. The main sources used by historians is Pararaton ('Book of Kings') in Kawi language and Nagarakertagama in the ancient Javanese language. Pararaton Ken Arok (founder Singhasari) but includes several short sections on the formation of Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, is a poem written in Old Javanese Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk. After that, the thing that happens is not clear. In addition, there are several inscriptions in the ancient Javanese language and historical records from China and other countries.

The accuracy of all the Java-language manuscript is disputed. There is no denying that the resources they contain non-historical elements and myth. Some scholars like C.C. Berg considers all texts rather than the past record, but have meaning in terms of the supernatural can know the future. [8] However, most scholars assume that the broad outline of these resources can be accepted as consistent with historical records from China, particularly list of rulers and royal state which appears to be quite certain.

The fall of Majapahit

After reaching a peak in the 14th century, Majapahit power gradually weakened. There appears to be a civil war (War Paregreg) in 1405-1406, between Wirabhumi against Wikramawardhana. Similarly, there has been a fight about the turn of the king in the year 1450s, and the great rebellion waged by a nobleman in the year 1468.

In Javanese tradition there is a chronogram or candrasengkala which reads ilang kretaning earth vanished. This is said year Sengkala end of Majapahit, and should be read as 0041, the year of Saka 1400, or 1478 CE. Sengkala meaning is "gone gone prosperity earth." However, the truth is described by the deaths of Bre candrasengkala Kertabumi, the 11th king of Majapahit Kingdom, by Girindrawardhana [15].
A model ship display of Majapahit in the State Muzium, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

When Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and the spreaders of religion had begun to enter the archipelago. In the late 14th century and early 15th century, the Majapahit influence throughout the archipelago began to decrease. At the same time, a new trading empire based on Islam, the Sultanate of Malacca, began to appear on the western part of the archipelago.

Note the history of China, Portuguese (Tome Pires), and Italy (Pigafetta) indicates that there has been displacement of the Majapahit kingdom in the hands of Hindu rulers into the hands of the Duke of Unus, the ruler of the Sultanate of Demak, between the years 1518 and 1521 AD

Founding of Majapahit

After Singhasari expel Sriwijaya from Java as a whole in the year 1290, Singhasari become the most powerful empire in the region. This has become the attention of Kublai Khan, ruler of the Yuan Dynasty in China. He sent an envoy named Meng Chi to Singhasari who demanded tribute. Kertanagara, the last ruler Singashari refused to pay tribute and to embarrass those with damage envoy cut his face and ears. Kublai Khan was angry and then dispatch a large expedition to Java in 1293.

At that time, Jayakatwang, duke of Kediri, was killed Kertanagara. On the advice of Aria Wiraraja, Jayakatwang give clemency to Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara-law, who came to surrender. Raden Wijaya then given the woods Pull. He opened the forest and built a new village. The village was named Majapahit, whose name is taken from the fruit of a teenager, and a sense of "bitterness" of the fruit. When the Mongols arrived, Wijaya allied with the Mongol army to fight Jayakatwang. Raden Wijaya Mongolnya ally turns against forcing them withdraw from a chaotic because they are in foreign territory. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds to be able to go home, or they should be forced to wait another six months on a foreign island.

The exact date of which is used as date of birth of the Majapahit empire, Raden Wijaya was the day of coronation as king, that on November 10, 1293. He was crowned with the official name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The kingdom was facing problems. Some people trusted Kertarajasa, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though the rebellion was not successful. Slamet Muljana mahapati Halayudha guess that was the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king, so he can reach the highest positions in government. However, after the death of the last rebel (Kuti), Halayudha arrested and jailed, and then sentenced to death. Wijaya died in 1309.

Wijaya's son and heir, Jayanegara, is the ruler of the evil and immoral. He dubbed Gemet Kala, meaning "weak villain". In 1328, Jayanegara killed by His Doctor, Tanca. Her stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni should replace him, but Rajapatni choose resigned from the palace and become a preacher woman. Rajapatni pointed Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi daughter to become queen of Majapahit. During the reign Tribhuwana, Majapahit kingdom grew into larger and more famous in the area. Majapahit Tribhuwana mastered until her death in 1350. He was succeeded by his son, Hayam Wuruk.

Before the arrival of the Dutch

Surabaya Majapahit Kingdom was once a gateway, ie, at the mouth of Kali Mas. Even today a city of Surabaya is set as the date of May 31, 1293. The day was actually a victory day of Majapahit troops led by Raden Wijaya against troops of Kublai Khan's Mongol empire messenger. Mongol armies who came from the sea is described as SURO fish (shark / bold) and Raden Wijaya troops who come from the land described as BOYO (crocodile / danger), so it literally means brave to face the coming danger threatens. So the victory was celebrated as the anniversary of Surabaya.

In the 15th century, Islam began to spread rapidly in areas of Surabaya. One member of the guardian sanga, Sunan Ampel, establishing mosques and Islamic schools in the area Ampel. Year 1530, Singapore became part of Demak Sultanate.

Following the collapse of Demak, Surabaya, Mataram Sultanate conquest subject: Panembahan Senopati invaded in 1598, a massive attack by extension Krapyak Seda ing in 1610, was attacked in 1614 by Sultan Agung. Blocking the flow of the Brantas River by Sultan Agung Surabaya finally forced to surrender. Year 1675, won the Madura Trunojoyo from Surabaya, but finally kicked the VOC in the year 1677.

In the agreement between Pakubowono VOC II and on 11 November 1743 handed over his command to the VOC Surabaya.


When he awoke from his sleep, Sea Biding surprised to find himself alone on the island of Marsala. He ran towards the shore to try to meet his brothers. But no one saw, except a boat.

Biding sea can not understand why she was left alone. But he did not think his brothers tried to harm. Without thinking, he immediately boarded a boat and pedaled toward the coast of Sibolga.

But the big waves never brought Biding Sea to the land of his birth. For several days the boat waves wandered on the west coast of Sumatra. I do not know how many times he fainted from hunger and hot air. His suffering ended when his boat shipwrecked in the Land of Java, Banten area.

A fisherman who happened to see it and then help Biding Sea. In his new home, Marine Biding get good treatment. Biding Marine was happy to be with his new family. He was treated appropriately. In an instant, her presence in the village became a byword of society, mainly because of their beauty charm.

It was told, at one time the area was the arrival of a king from the East Java region. When are resting on their way, pass a pretty girl who is very beautiful like an angel from heaven, and attract the attention of the King. Because of interest, the King to find out that beautiful figure who turned out Biding Sea. Biding Enchanted Sea beauty, the king also ask for her hand.

Biding Sea reject the proposal does not deny that, until they are married. Biding Sea and subsequently brought to a kingdom in East Java.


Before traveling to Anchorage Quin, Sukabumi, Mystery took talking with Silalahi (40 yrs), spiritualist who will lead the ritual.
"The Legend of Queen Kidul origin derived from the Batak land is not separated from the story of Batak kings," said Silalahi began.
It was told, the trip starts from the Batak king who had two sons. Eldest son was named Teacher Tatea Moon and both are named King Isumbaon.
His oldest son, the Guru Tatea Moon has 11 children (five sons and six daughters). The fifth son named: Raja Uti, Saribu King, Limbong Mulana, Sagala King and Lau King. Meanwhile, the sixth daughter named: Biding Sea, Siboru Pareme, Paronnas, Nan Tinjo, Moon and Flowers The Pandan.
Biding the eldest daughter of the Sea has a beauty more than any other sister. He also has a friendly disposition and polite to her parents. Therefore, Biding Sea pertained most beloved child of his parents.
However, the proximity of parents to raise jealousy Sea Biding his brothers the other. They agreed to get rid of Biding Sea.
One time, his brothers facing the Sea Biding his father to take a walk to the beach Sibolga. That request was denied Teacher Tatea Moon, the Sea is considering Biding her beloved daughter. But his brothers were insistent desire, so that the father was eventually unable to resist.
On one day, Sea Biding his brothers invited a walk to the area of Sibolga. From the beach Sibolga, they then used the two fruit boat toward a small island called Pulau Marsala, near the island of Nias.
Arrive in Marsala Island, they take a walk while enjoying the beauty of the islands that are uninhabited it. Until then, do not know the intentions Sea Biding hidden his brothers who want to harm. Biding Sea is only just a willingness to follow his brothers to walk further away from the beach.
By noon, the Sea Biding feel tired until he was resting and sleeping. He had no idea when he was being negligent, then exploited the opportunity that his brothers left the sea Biding alone on the island.
On the beach, Sea Biding brothers are ready to use two boats to return to Sibolga. But one of his relatives suggested that a boat was left alone. He worried that if the two boats arrived in Sibolga will arouse suspicion. Better to just one carry, so if anyone asks say a boat was sunk by Sea Biding casualties.
But what his brothers had planned not to become a reality, because the fate decides otherwise.

RITUAL calling Queen of South

To prove the existence of a figure of legend Biding Sea is believed to be Queen of South, along with eight colleagues Mystery of the Batak tribes all had come to Port Queen to perform the ritual summons the spirit of Queen of South.

The first location is the tomb of Master Lock Batu Kendit's Father Em par. This location is known to the public, especially those who want to perform a ritual calling Queen of South. It seems, in this place was Queen Kidul appeared normal.

Before performing the ritual, as is usually some Ubo rampe has been prepared, including: orange, lime, apples, betel leaves, bananas, grapes, oil genie, hibiscus, rice flour, coconut and sugar (itaguruguru-Batak language).

At around 22:30 that night, began the ritual ceremony calling the spirit of Queen of South. At that time, Silalahi and Boru Tumorang seemed to read incantations-spells. Moments later, Silalahi began showing facial expression changes. Mysterious figure who seems to have penetrated summoned into the body. Later Mystery knowing, supernatural figure that is the spirit of King of the Batak.

While in almost the same time, also showed expression of Boru Tumorang trance. Her body suddenly fell down and crawled to shift position. After that, he resumed his seat with his face bowed and eyes closed. Spirit of South Queen had penetrated into the body of this woman's home Samosir.

Dialog in the Batak language ensued between Silalahi (already conceded the spirit of King Batak) with Boru Tumorang and several people who attended. Throughout the dialogue, facial expressions changing Tumorang Boru. Sometimes a smile, laugh, cry and sing the song contains some advice.

The first sentence is pronounced is the Queen of South

"Why only now you come to see me? And I've been here long, "said Queen Kidul through Tumorang Boru lips.

When one of those present asked about Biding Sea, South Queen instantly retorted, "Yes, I am Biding Sea. It's up to whether you will believe it or not. "

Further dialogue spilling out. Some of them noted the Mystery of the dialogue when Boru Tumorang crying, saying

"Boasa nalupa tuauito hamo warehouse (why you'd forgotten all about me)?" Said the Queen through the lips of Boru Tumorang Kidul. "Ahado sisukunonmuna (What do you want to question)?" Continued the Queen of South.

"Hamirotuson nanboru namagido tangiansiangho (We came here to ask for prayer from Nyai)," answered one of those present.

"Asadikontuhata pasupasu dohut rajohi (Let God-given blessing to us)," said another.

Boru looks Tumorang wagged his body. Head like digelengkan, occasionally nodding. A moment later he said:

Java language "Posmaruham, paubahamuma pangalaho rohamuna (Percayalah. As long as you change the attitude and behavior for the better, it definitely will happen)."

Furthermore, he said again, "Asarat martonggo mahita tuoputa (Let us together pray to God)."

language of Java "Molonang Muba rohamu nalaroma balainna mamuse he he followed tuinjang (If it does not change with a good attitude will arise again, the tsunami disaster)"

"Dope Dangdiadia namasae naosolpu nalaroma muse gogosiani buckler (Not how the disaster that was then. More terrible disaster will come again. If you do not believe in God)."

South Queen's advice seems directed to all people. While the child's descent from the tribe of Batak, Kidul Queen said,

in Java language "Amang Posmarohamu paboanhudoi your God pomparanhu dibagasan parnipion (Bel eave. All offspring will I let each one through a dream)."

"Amang Posmaroham patureon hudo sube popparamme (Believe me, I'll help and I help all this Your children s).

South Queen also gave orders to all men to not discriminate between race,

"Unang despair tumanisiae Pabohamu mambedahon popparanhisude (Send to all people so as not to distinguish the tribe)."

Dialogue with the spirit of South Queen lasted about half an hour. The contents of the dialogue is filled with advice to the people that always do good.

But for sure, the dialogue is also Queen of South Queen figures tell the origin of himself and his real name.

Search effort is opening a new discourse about the origins of Queen of South. This ritual was not intended to justify one side. As Silalahi,

"We do not intend to claim the truth of our opinions," Silalahi said, smiling. "But we're just trying to raise again an issue that has long been grown in our area. The truth may be debated, "he continued.

Correct what he said. Queen of South supernatural figure deserves debate. The existence of both parts of these origins can, too. But certainly, advice Queen south are not aware spoken through the medium, often reminds us to always believe in God.

SOUTH drowned in the sea

Sea Biding living happily with her husband, who became king. But the happiness did not last long. Occurred within the palace intrigues which accused Biding Sea affair with royal officials. Royal law was established, Biding Sea must die.

This situation is causing turmoil of the King. He does not want a very beloved wife in law died, while the law must be upheld. In this situation, he then maneuver to send back to Banten Biding Sea via sea.

Using boats, Biding Sea and some of the king went to Bantam. They walked down the Indian Ocean, known as the South Sea.

However poor their fate. In that trip, their boat sank buffeted by storms. Biding Sea and several guards were drowned in the South Sea.

So a bit of a legend Biding Sea that is trusted as the original figure of Queen of South.

"In the legend of Batak kings, the figure is still quite mysterious Sea Biding its existence, while children of other teachers Tatea Months listed in the legend," said Silalahi with a serious expression.

Meanwhile, Boru Tumorang (45 yrs) admitted that he often had long since conceded the spirit of Queen of South. Especially the case when the arrival of guests who ask him to do the treatment. But Boru Tumorang not understand why his body is elected Queen of South. Everything is going beyond its intention.

Surabaya City

Surabaya is the capital city of East Java province, Indonesia. Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city after Jakarta. Metropolis with a population of about 3 million inhabitants, Surabaya was the business center, commerce, industry and education in eastern Indonesia. Surabaya City of Heroes known as a highly regarded because of its history in the struggle for Indonesian independence from the colonizers.

Surabaya word supposedly comes from the mythical story of the battle between the sura (shark) and baya (crocodile).

Although Java is a majority interest (83.68%), but Singapore is also home to various tribes in Indonesia, including tribes Madurese (7.5%), Tionghoa (7.25%), Arabic (2.04%), and the rest are of other ethnic groups or foreigners.

Battle of Surabaya maintain

After World War II ended, at October 25, 1945, 6000 British-Indian army of 49 Brigade, 23 Division led by Brigadier-General Walter Sothern Aulbertin Mallaby landed in Surabaya with the main command disarm the Japanese army, militia and Indonesian soldiers. They are also responsible care of the former prisoners of war and repatriated the Japanese. Japanese troops to surrender all their weapons, but more than 20 000 militia and Indonesian troops refuse.

October 26, 1945, agreement is reached between Mr Suryo, the Governor of East Java with Brigadier Mallaby that Indonesian troops and militias do not have to surrender their weapons. Unfortunately, miss understanding between the British troops in Surabaya with the British army headquarters in Jakarta, led by Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison.

October 27, 1945, at 11:00 noon, the British Air Force Dakota aircraft dropped leaflets from Jakarta, Surabaya Indonesia, commanded all the soldiers and militias to surrender their weapons. The army and Indonesian militia leader was angry when I read this leaflet and think Brigadier Mallaby does not comply with an agreement dated October 26, 1945.

October 28th, 1945, Indonesian troops and militia to attack British troops in Surabaya. In order to avoid defeat in Surabaya, Brigadier Mallaby request that President Sukarno and the commander of British troops 23rd Division, Major General Douglas Hawthorn Cyril to go to Surabaya and the pursuit of peace.

October 29, 1945, President Soekarno, Vice President Mohammad Hatta and Information Minister Maj. Gen. Amir Syarifuddin Harahap with Hawthorn went to Surabaya to negotiate.

By day, October 30, 1945, reached agreement signed by President Soekarno and 23 Division Commander Major General Hawthorn. The contents of this agreement is held shooting stops and the British troops will be withdrawn immediately from Surabaya. Major General Hawthorn and the three leaders of RI leave and return to Jakarta, Surabaya.

In the afternoon, October 30, 1945, Brigadier General Mallaby was traveling to the various headings of British troops in Surabaya to inform about the agreement. As he approached the post of British troops in buildings Internatio, near a red bridge, car Brigadier General Mallaby was besieged by militia who previously had surrounded the building Internatio.

Because think about to be attacked by the militia commander, British troops led by Maj. company D K. Venu Gopal opened fire on the militias to disband. The militia thought they were being attacked / shot at British soldiers from the Internatio building and returned fire. A British officer, Captain R.C. Smith tossed a grenade towards the Indonesian militia, but missed and instead fell right in the car Brigadier Mallaby.

Grenade exploded and burned cars. As a result, Brigadier Mallaby and his driver were killed. Initial reports given to British troops in Surabaya headquarters of British troops in Jakarta, Brigadier Mallaby mentions shot dead by Indonesian militias.

Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison was furious to hear the death of Brigadier Mallaby and deploy 24 000 additional troops to take control of Surabaya.

9 November 1945, English spread the ultimatum to all armed Indonesian soldiers and militia immediately handed over to British troops, but the ultimatum was ignored.

10 November 1945, Surabaya, and British began bombing the fierce battle lasted continuously for 10 days. Two planes were shot down British troops and one passenger RI Brigadier General Robert Guy Lewder-Symon's was badly injured and died the next day.

20 November 1945, the British succeeded in mastering Surabaya with the victims of thousands of soldiers were killed. More than 20 000 Indonesian soldiers, militia and residents of Surabaya were killed. The entire city of Surabaya, was devastated.

This battle is one of the bloodiest battles suffered by British forces in the decade of the 1940s. This battle shows the seriousness of the Indonesian nation to defend the independence and expel invaders.

Because the heat of battle and the amount of casualties, after the battle, the number of British troops in Indonesia began gradually reduced and replaced by Dutch troops. Battle on 10 November 1945 up to today is remembered and celebrated as Heroes' Day.

Appearance from Surabaya

National figures who was born in Surabaya are:

* HOS Tjokroaminoto, leaders of national movements and organizational leaders SI
KH Mas * Mansur, the former leader of Muhammadiyah
* Ruslan Abdul Gani, the national historian, former journalist, and former Minister of Foreign Affairs
* Bung Tomo, the original name of A topic Dermatitis is inspiring orator Suroboyo Arek struggle against the Allied occupation forces
* Rudy Hartono, former National Badminton, All England champion eight times, including seven times in a row
* Alan Budikusuma, former National Badminton Olympic gold medalist in Barcelona 1992

Independence War Period

The proclamation on August 17 1945 burnt the spirit of Arek-Arek Surabaya in opposing colonizers, until occurred the Inferno of Surabaya that awakened the suppressed nation be revived to oppose colonizers.

On Monday, September 3, 1945, the Resident Soedirman proclaimed the RI Government in East Java and has been answered with the Flag display action all over the Surabaya corner. The Dutch aircraft spread the announcement pamphlet that the Ally/the Netherlands would land in Surabaya that caused Dutch arrogantly display the Dutch flag in Orange Hotel on September 19,1945, this caused arek-arek Suroboyo's anger arose, so as to the bloody incident happened with the murder of Mr. Ploegman. Blue color in Dutch flag (red, white, blue) was torn by Arek- Arek Suroboyo and flew Red White flag (Sang Merah Putih) gloriously in the space.

On October 25, 1945 the English troops landed in Surabaya , the 49th brigade with the strength 6,000 soldiers were led by brig. Jend. A.W.S. Mallaby, troops had from the world cauldron of war that consisted of Gurkha troops and Nepal from North India . In following day, on October 26-27, 1945 , several English aircraft dropped the leaflet that commanded the Surabaya inhabitants and East Java to hand over the weapon. On October 28,1945 the incident all over the corner of the city happened.

The peak of this tragedy on October 30-31, 1945 the English troops left the Internatio Building . Brig. Mallaby was died, as his car was exploded. On November 9, 1945 the ultimatum that was signed by May. Jend. E.S. Masergh the Commander of the Division of the allied Troops in East Java, asked the people to hand over the unconditional weapon before 18.00 and if not carried out up until 06.00 on November 10, 1945 in the morning would be taken action against with the strength of the Army's military, Sea and Air.

Successively, at 21 o'clock.00 and 23.00 after through the Center Government in Jakarta did not succeed in changing the founding headed by the English Troops to pull out his ultimatum. Governor Soerjo made a speech that was confirmation, "Better was destroyed than was colonized again". On November 10, 1945, the massive battle in the corner of the city, happened the mass opposition the Surabaya people opposed the allied troops, so many victims fell everywhere, for 18 Surabaya days like in hell. With destruction of the fortification of the people's paramilitary troops in Mountain Sari, on November 28 1945 caused all the Surabaya City fell to the hands of the Ally contemporary.

Recalled heroism for Arek-Arek Surabaya that struggled courageously until the point of final blood, for the sake of the sovereignty and erected the Indonesian nation goal then was built the Pillar Monument of the Hero (Tugu Pahlawan) who was declared on November 10 1962 by President of Indonesia.

Moreover, it was also built the bamboo stakes Monument (Bambu Runcing) to recall the spirit Arek-Arek Suroboyo that courageously opposed colonizers with the weapon an existence although only with a lath of bamboo which tip was sharpened.

Source :

* Surabaya Now And Future, 2003

Dompu, 1815

But, as seen in the transformation Dompu history, which destroyed pralaya often be moments where life and the birth of a new social consensus had been built with great hope.
Dompu district that lies between Sumbawa and Bima, interesting to be observed because of the unique historical development. As a region with a history of a long history, as well Dompu failure precisely because of the birth of a trans formative pralaya devastating.

Nangasia megalithic sites, located in District Hu'u, approximately 35 km from downtown Dompu, the ruins that mark the history of how Dompu has a long history. In that area it was found Nangasia archaeological objects such as pottery, beads, cobek, pots, jars, animal bone and tortoiseshell. Nangasia sites is estimated as a "necropolis" or the burial place of settlement from the first centuries AD.

Long before knowing the hierarchical form of the royal government, the people in the region live in Dompu led by a number of tribal chieftains, usually called "Ncuhi".

Among Ncuhi, there are at least four of the most recognized Ncuhi: (1) Ncuhi ruling Hu'u Hu'u (now sub Hu'u), (2) Ncuhi Saneo Saneo ruling and the surrounding area (now the Sub Woja), ( 3) Ncuhi ruling Nowa Nowa and surrounding areas, and (4) Tonda Ncuhi Tonda the ruling and the surrounding region (now Village in District Riwo Woja).

When the Majapahit Kingdom was enjoying its golden ages under the leadership and Gajah Mada Hayam Wuruk, people living in Dompu has been acquainted with the royal government system. Majapahit himself had done twice a military expedition to Dompu. The first expedition in 1344 successfully thwarted while a second expedition in 1357 managed to conquer Dompu.

In the mid 16th century, circa 1645, Dompu tantalize important transition following the establishment of Islam as the official religion of the kingdom by King Dompu Dompu called La Bata Na'e. Since then, the kings of Dompu start using the title of Sultan. The spread of Islam in Dompu performed by Sheikh Nurdin from the Arabian peninsula who arrived in Dompu in 1528.

Stability in Dompu began disrupted in the 19th century after a number of rebellions that allows the colonial government began to intervene. The climax occurred in 1809, Governor General Governor Van Kraam Daendels ordered to renew the agreement more binding Dompu.

Six years later, in April 1815, Mount Tambora erupted spectacularly. Tambora eruption of major concern for messing inviting the world's climate. Because of large amount of dust ejected into the atmosphere to cause "global cooling", to the point that in 1816 known as "the year without a summer '. In Western Europe, since the beginning of June 1815-only 1.5 months of intermittent eruption of Mount Tambora, occurred what is called "rain of the season." And it happened for a few weeks.

For civilization on Sumbawa Island, the eruption of Mount Tambora really become pralaya. Not only killed tens of thousands of people, the eruption was also destroyed and buried the three kingdoms of the kingdom of Tambora in Sumbawa, Concentration and Sanggar.

Uniquely, the Kingdom Dompu survived and were transferred by the central Dompu Sultan Abdul Apostle II. Not only that, the destruction of the kingdom of Tambora, Concentration and Sanggar makes the territory of the Kingdom Dompu become increasingly widespread.

This can lead to transformation Dompu history, shaping the so-called Dompu Bou (New Dompu). The eruption of Tambora in April 1815, which became the largest in the history pralaya Sumbawa Island, now precisely defined as the birthday of the Regency.

But that destroys pralaya often be moments where life and the birth of a new social consensus often successfully built with great hope. Like life on Earth is born again after the great flood in Noah's era or Aceh successful weaving of social and political consensus that new pralaya after a devastating tsunami.

Source: jurnas