Indonesian National Awakening

Indonesian Nationalist
In October 1908, the first nationalist movement was formed, Budi Utomo. On September 10, 1912, the first nationalist mass movement was formed--Sarekat Islam. By December 1912, Sarakat Islam had 93,000 members. The Dutch responded after the First World War with repressive measures. The nationalist leaders came from a small group of young professionals and students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands. In the post-World War I era, the Indonesian communists who were associated with the Third International started to usurp the nationalist movement. The repression of the nationalist movement led to many arrests, including Indonesia's first president, Sukarno (1901–70), who was imprisoned for political activities on December 29, 1929. Also arrested was Mohammad Hatta, first Vice-President of Indonesia. Additinally, Sutan Sjahrir, who later became the first Prime Minister of Indonesia, was arrested on this date.

In 1914 exiled Dutch socialist Henk Sneevliet founded the Indies Social Democratic Association. Initially a small forum of Dutch socialists, it would later evolve into the Communist Party of Indonesia in 1924. In the post-World War I era, the Dutch strongly repressed all attempts at change. This repression led to a growth of the P.K.I. By December 1924, the P.K.I had a membership of 1,140.[35] One year later in 1925, the P.K.I. had grown to 3,000 members. In 1926 thru 1927, there was a P.K.I. led revolt against the Dutch colonialism and the harsh repression based on strikes of urban workers.[37] However, the strikes and the revolt was put down by the Dutch with some 13,000 nationalists and communists leaders arrested. Some 4,500 were given prison sentences.

Sukarno was released from prison in December 1931.[40] However, Sukarno was re-arrested again on August 1, 1933


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