Course materials Indonesian Political System

 By Uwes Fatoni, M. Ag

History Political System of Indonesia can be seen from the political process that happens in it. However, in the parse is not enough just to see the history of Indonesian people but needed to be more effective system of analysis. In the political process in which there is usually a functional interaction of the rotating flow process to maintain its existence. The political system is an open system, because this system is surrounded by an environment of challenge and pressure.

In analyzing the system can approach it as one point of view of the party system, but neither can be seen from the traditional approach by making projections of history which was just a quick photo shoot. The approach should be done with the integrative approach is a systems approach, perpetrator instigation purpose and decision making

The political process should indicate the capability of the system. Capabilities of the system is the system's ability to face reality and challenges. This view of success in facing these challenges differ among political experts. Political experts and the classical era, such as Plato and Aristotle, followed by the liberal theorist of the 18th century and 19 to see the political achievements diurnal morally. While in modern times is now a political expert to see the level of achievement (performance level) is how much influence the environment in society, the environment outside of the international community and the environment.

This influence will bring political change. The perpetrators of political change can be from the political elite, or from groups and political infrastructure of the international environment.

These changes in scale and content in the form of input and output streams. Proes converting input into output by a goalkeeper (gatekeepers).

There are five capabilities that became a political system of performance appraisal:

1. Extractive capabilities, the ability of natural resources and human resources. SDA capability usually is still potential to later be used optimally by the government. Like the management of petroleum, mining when it comes domestic investors that will provide revenue for the government in the form of taxes. Tax is then turn on the country.

2. Distributive capabilities. SDA owned by the community and the country is processed in such a way as to be evenly distributed, such as staple foods that are required to be equitable distribution throughout the community. Similarly, state income taxes as it should be re-distributed from the central government to local governments.

3. Regulative capabilities (setting). In Have Show supervisory behavior of individuals and groups of settings is required. Regulation of individuals often results in conflict of opinion. Like when the government tightened regulations require it later, this has resulted in unbridled community involvement.

4. symbolic capabilities, meaning that government's ability to be creative and selective in making policies that will be received by the people. The more acceptable government policy that made the better capability of symbolic systems.

5. responsive capability, in the political process there is a relationship between input and output, the output of the extent to which government policy is influenced by the input or the existence of community participation as its inputs will be the size of the responsive capability.

6. domestic and international capabilities. A country can not live alone in a globalized world today, even now many countries that have extractive capabilities of international trade. Minimal in this international capability, rich or powerful country (superpower) provides grants (grants) and loans (loans) to developing countries.

There is one more approach is needed in view of the political process approach to development, which consists of two things:

a. Political development of community mobilization, participation, or the middle. Style aggregation of interests of this community can offer pragmatic dilakukans ecara as used in the U.S. or the pursuit of absolute value as in the Soviet Union or traditionalist.

b. Government's political development in the form of political stability


History of Indonesia's political system is viewed from the political process can be seen from the following periods:

- Pre-colonial period

- Early Colonial (colonial)

- The Liberal Democracy

- The period of "Guided Democracy

- The Five Principles of Democracy

- The Reformation

Each period is then systematically analyzed from the aspect:

· Delivery charges

· Maintenance of value

· Capability

· Vertical Integration

· Horizontal Integration

· Political force

· Leadership

· Mass participation

· Military involvement

· State officials

· Stability

When you described back then the analysis is obtained as follows:

1. Pre-colonial period (the Kingdom)

· Channeling demands - low and fulfilled

· Maintenance of value - in line with the ruler or the winner of the battle

· Capability - SDA overflow

· Vertical integration - top down

· Horizontal integration - seems only other royal rulers

· Political force - the kingdom

· Leadership - kings, princes and royal families

· Mass participation - very low

· Military involvement - is very powerful because it relates to war

· State officials - loyal to the monarchy and the king who ruled

· Stability - secure and stable instability the days the days of war

2. Colonial period (colonial)

· Channeling demands - low and unfulfilled

Maintenance · value - often there is a violation of ham

· Capability - abundant but dredged for imperialist interests

· Vertical integration - the bottom is not in harmony

· Horizontal integration - in harmony with fellow colonial or indigenous elites

· Political style - colonial, bamboo divisive politics (divisive)

· Leadership - from the colonial and indigenous elites who manipulated

· Mass participation - very low or even zero

· Military involvement - very big

· State officials - loyal to the occupiers

· Stability - stable but fragile condition

3. The period of Liberal Democracy

· Channeling demand - high but not yet memadani system

Maintenance · value - high human rights award

· Capability - is only partially used, most are still potential

· Vertical integration - in both directions, top down and bottom up

· Horizontal integration-disintegration, appears solidarity makers and administrators

· Political force - the ideological

· Leadership - force oath of youth in 1928

· Mass participation - is very high, and even appeared coup

· Military involvement - the military controlled by civilian

· State apparatus - loyak to group or party interests

· Stability - instability

4. Guided Democracy period

· Channeling demand - high but not because of the Front nas channeled

Maintenance · values - Respect for human rights low

· Capability - abstract, distributive and symbolic, not economic advance

· Vertical integration - top down

· Horizontal Integration - a role solidarity makers,

· Political force - ideologue, Nasakom

· Leadership - charismatic and paternalistic figures

· Mass participation - limited

· Military involvement - the military into governance

· State officials - loyal to the country

· Stability - stable

5. The period of Pancasila Democracy

· Channeling demand - initially balanced then not fulfilled because the fusion

Maintenance · values - human rights violations occurred but there was recognition of human rights

· Capability - open system

· Vertical integration - top down

· Horizontal Integration - visible

· Political force - intellectual, pragmatic, concept development

· Leadership - technocrats and the Armed Forces

· Mass participation - limited free initially, then more limited

· Military involvement - is rampant with the concept of dual function of ABRI

· State officials - loyal to the government (Golkar)

· Stability stable

6. Reform Period

· Channeling demands - and met high

Maintenance · values - Respect for human rights high

· Capability-adjusted to regional autonomy

· Vertical integration - in both directions, top down and bottom up

· Horizontal Integration - visible, appearing freedom (euphoria)

· Political style - pragmatic

· Leadership - civil, purnawiranan, politicians

· Mass participation - high

· Military involvement - restricted

· State officials - should be loyal to the country not the government

· Stability - instabil
Dated March 28, 2006


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