Battle of Surabaya maintain

After World War II ended, at October 25, 1945, 6000 British-Indian army of 49 Brigade, 23 Division led by Brigadier-General Walter Sothern Aulbertin Mallaby landed in Surabaya with the main command disarm the Japanese army, militia and Indonesian soldiers. They are also responsible care of the former prisoners of war and repatriated the Japanese. Japanese troops to surrender all their weapons, but more than 20 000 militia and Indonesian troops refuse.

October 26, 1945, agreement is reached between Mr Suryo, the Governor of East Java with Brigadier Mallaby that Indonesian troops and militias do not have to surrender their weapons. Unfortunately, miss understanding between the British troops in Surabaya with the British army headquarters in Jakarta, led by Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison.

October 27, 1945, at 11:00 noon, the British Air Force Dakota aircraft dropped leaflets from Jakarta, Surabaya Indonesia, commanded all the soldiers and militias to surrender their weapons. The army and Indonesian militia leader was angry when I read this leaflet and think Brigadier Mallaby does not comply with an agreement dated October 26, 1945.

October 28th, 1945, Indonesian troops and militia to attack British troops in Surabaya. In order to avoid defeat in Surabaya, Brigadier Mallaby request that President Sukarno and the commander of British troops 23rd Division, Major General Douglas Hawthorn Cyril to go to Surabaya and the pursuit of peace.

October 29, 1945, President Soekarno, Vice President Mohammad Hatta and Information Minister Maj. Gen. Amir Syarifuddin Harahap with Hawthorn went to Surabaya to negotiate.

By day, October 30, 1945, reached agreement signed by President Soekarno and 23 Division Commander Major General Hawthorn. The contents of this agreement is held shooting stops and the British troops will be withdrawn immediately from Surabaya. Major General Hawthorn and the three leaders of RI leave and return to Jakarta, Surabaya.

In the afternoon, October 30, 1945, Brigadier General Mallaby was traveling to the various headings of British troops in Surabaya to inform about the agreement. As he approached the post of British troops in buildings Internatio, near a red bridge, car Brigadier General Mallaby was besieged by militia who previously had surrounded the building Internatio.

Because think about to be attacked by the militia commander, British troops led by Maj. company D K. Venu Gopal opened fire on the militias to disband. The militia thought they were being attacked / shot at British soldiers from the Internatio building and returned fire. A British officer, Captain R.C. Smith tossed a grenade towards the Indonesian militia, but missed and instead fell right in the car Brigadier Mallaby.

Grenade exploded and burned cars. As a result, Brigadier Mallaby and his driver were killed. Initial reports given to British troops in Surabaya headquarters of British troops in Jakarta, Brigadier Mallaby mentions shot dead by Indonesian militias.

Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison was furious to hear the death of Brigadier Mallaby and deploy 24 000 additional troops to take control of Surabaya.

9 November 1945, English spread the ultimatum to all armed Indonesian soldiers and militia immediately handed over to British troops, but the ultimatum was ignored.

10 November 1945, Surabaya, and British began bombing the fierce battle lasted continuously for 10 days. Two planes were shot down British troops and one passenger RI Brigadier General Robert Guy Lewder-Symon's was badly injured and died the next day.

20 November 1945, the British succeeded in mastering Surabaya with the victims of thousands of soldiers were killed. More than 20 000 Indonesian soldiers, militia and residents of Surabaya were killed. The entire city of Surabaya, was devastated.

This battle is one of the bloodiest battles suffered by British forces in the decade of the 1940s. This battle shows the seriousness of the Indonesian nation to defend the independence and expel invaders.

Because the heat of battle and the amount of casualties, after the battle, the number of British troops in Indonesia began gradually reduced and replaced by Dutch troops. Battle on 10 November 1945 up to today is remembered and celebrated as Heroes' Day.


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